NEGERPLASTIK CARL EINSTEIN LE SOURCES DE L’ART PREMIER

L’AVENTURE DES ARTS PREMIERS

L’évolution d’un regard

*

LE SOURCES

*

IV

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EN ROUTE VERS LE LOUVRE

Enquête des Arts lointains: Seront-ils admis au Louvre?

Felix Feneon

1920  

“Lorsque le musée du Louvre recevrà l’art nègre, il y trouvera non son complément, mais son principe”

 Lucie Cousturier, peintre et escrivain, 1920

see more on  

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2012/07/19/enquete-des-arts-lointains-seront-ils-admis-au-louvre-felix.html

*****

ALFRED STIEGLITZ

Galerie

291

1916

TEXT BY

M.DE ZAYAS

“Modern art is not individualistic and esoteric and even less an expression of a spontaneus generation.” 

SEE MORE 

ON

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2012/07/20/alfred-stieglitz-galerie-291-m-de-zayas-1916-arte-negra.html

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ROGER FRY

SCULPTURE NEGRE

VISION AND DESIGN

1920

 

Ce qui distingue pour Fyes la sculpture africaine de la tradition occidentale est sa  “complete plastic freedom,” 

 

et la possibilité de créer “forms in three dimensions”  SEE MORE ON  

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2012/07/20/roger-fry-sculpture-negre-vision-and-design-1920.html

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CARL EINSTEIN

NEGERPLASTIK

1915

Negerplastik

est

l’un des premier lien entre l’art nègre et le mouvements de l’art moderne.

 

L’auteur fut le premier à présenter la sculpture traditionnelle africaine en termes esthétiques, par opposition à  le artefacts ethnographique, postulant une façon de voir l’espace :   “plastiches Sehen” qui aborde les problèmes du cubisme. 

 

Ce n’est pas une histoire de la sculpture africaine car elle ignore les peuples qui ont fait des sculptures.

 

Einstein adhéré à la théorie que la sculpture “parlé” directement au spectateur et ne nécessitent donc pas

informations de fond.

 

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PHOTO CREDIT OF

http://www.archive. org

http://archive.org/details/negerplastik00einsuoft

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ROGER FRY NEGRO SCULPTURE VISION AND DESIGN 1920

L’AVENTURE DES ARTS PREMIERS

 

LE SOURCES

III

 

*

 

EN ROUTE VERS LE LOUVRE

 

*

 

Enquête des Arts lointains: Seront-ils admis au Louvre?

 

Felix Feneon

 

1920

 

see more on

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2012/07/19/enquete-des-arts-lointains-seront-ils-admis-au-louvre-felix.html

 

***

ALFRED STIEGLITZ

 

Galerie

 

291

 

1916

 

TEXT BY

 

M.DE ZAYAS

 

SEE more on 

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2012/07/20/alfred-stieglitz-galerie-291-m-de-zayas-1916-arte-negra.html

 

***

ROGER FRY SCULPTURE NEGRE VISION AND DESIGN 1920

 

Dans l ‘enquête de Félix Fénéon “Enquête des Arts lointains: Seront-ils admis au Louvre?”  Paul Guillaume répond

 “…J’espere venir a bout d’un ouvrage important pour lequel je me recuille…” (pag 695).

 

Le projet d’élaborer un travail plus détaillé que celui de 1917 en collaboration avec Apollinaire 

(Sculptures Nègres: 24 photographies précédées d’un avertissement de Guillaume Apollinaire et d’un exposé 

de Paul Guillaume.). 

 

En 1923, Albert  Barnes contact Paul Guillaume , à qui il a acheté sa collection d’art africain pour l’amener à 

collaborer à la création d’un catalogue  consacrée à l’art nègre sur la base de l'”systematic” method of aesthetic 

analysis ‘ 

 

Le catalogue sera Primitive Negro Art, 1926.

 

Parmi les auteurs qui avaient déjà commencé à dessiner très peu de raisonnement esthétique, dans ce contexte pourraient 

inclure Carl Einstein: Negerplastik, peut-être la enquête de Feneon, presque certainement un petit texte de Roger Fry.

 

Chez la galerie de Guillaume,Albert Barnes s’est réuni et a discuté de l’Art Negre et contemporaine avec Roger Fry, 

personnalité  très important pour la peinture française, et ami de Cézanne.

 

En Avril 1920 Fry avec Virginia Woolf visité une petite exposition de sculpture africaine au Club du livre de Chelsea

à Londres, Fry s’inspirant de ca pour un court essai, publié dans un magazine local, et peu de temps après dans son 

livre Vision and Design, intitulé sculpture nègre .

 

Ce qui distingue pour Fyes la sculpture africaine de la tradition occidentale est sa  “complete plastic freedom,” 

et la possibilité de créer “forms in three dimensions”.

 

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http://archive.org/index.php

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Alfred Stieglitz galerie 291 M. De Zayas 1916 Arte Negra

L’AVENTURE DES ARTS PREMIERS

L’évolution d’un regard

*

LE SOURCES

II

*

EN ROUTE VERS LE LOUVRE

 

Enquête des Arts lointains: Seront-ils admis au Louvre?

Felix Feneon

1920

see more on

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/archive/2012/07/19/enquete-des-arts-lointains-seront-ils-admis-au-louvre-felix.html

***

**

*

ALFRED STIEGLITZ

Galerie

291

1916

TEXT BY

M.DE ZAYAS

Modern art is not individualistic and esoteric and even less an expression of a spontaneus generation.

It shows itself more and more frankly an art of DISCOVERIES.

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Modern art is not based on direct plastic phenomena, but on epiphenomena, on transposition and on existing

evolutions.

In its plastic research modern art discovered Negro Art.

Picasso was its discoverer.

He introduced into European art, throug his own work,the plastic principles of negro art, the point of departure 

for our abstract representation.

Negro art has had thus a direct influence on our comprehension of form, teaching us to see and feel in purely expressive  side and opening our eyes to a new world of plastic sensations.

Negro art hs re awakened in us a sensibility obliterated by an education, which makes us always connect what we seen with what we know, our visualization with our knowledge, and makes us, in regard to form, use our intellect more than our sense.

It through European art, we have acquired the comprehension of form, from naturalistic point of view, arriving at mechanical  representation, Negro art has made us discover the possibility of giving plastic expression to the sensation  produced by the outer life, and consequently,also the possibility of finding new forms to espress our inner life.

Negro art product of the ‘land of fright’, reated by a mentality full of lear, and completely devoid of the faculties of observaton and analysis,is the pure expression of the emotions of a slave race, victim of nature, who see the outer world only under its most intensely expressive aspect anf not under its natuaral one.

The introduction of the plastic principles of African art into our European art does not constitute  a retrogradation or a 

decadence, for through them we have realized the possibility of expressing ourselves plastically without the recurrance of direct imitation of fanciful symbolism.

M. DE ZAYAS

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The village gods of South India Whitehead, Henry Calcutta 1921

The village gods of South India 

Whitehead, Henry

Calcutta :

Association Press ; London ; Toronto : H. Milford

(1921)

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CLAY HORSES OF AIYANAR

 

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GRAMA DEVATA SHRINE

 

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INTERIOR OF A SHRINE WITH SRONES PROBABLY SIMBOL OF THE SEVEN SISTERS

 

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KARAGAM

 

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RUDE SHRINE AT ROOT

OF TREE

WITH BARE AS SYMBOL

 

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RUDE SHRINE

 

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MINACHI AND THE SEVEN SISTER, CUDDALORE

 

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SHRINE OF POLERAMMA

 

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SHRINE AND IMAGES OF BISAL MARI

 

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http://archive.org/details/thevillagegodsof00whituoft

http://archive.org

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Sketches from Santalistan INDIAN FOLK CULTURE

PEOPLE OF INDIA

THE SANTAL

*

Sketches from Santalistan 

Minneapolis, Minn. : Den Lutherske Missionaer

Pederson

(1913)

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http://archive.org/details/sketchesfromsant00pede

http://archive.org

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*

Related key words

animal asked baptized become Christians Bhima Boerresen Bongas Brahmin bring brought bungalow calf called carried Christ  Christian workers cobra coolies door Dulu Dulu’s Dumni eastern world everything field friends gathered head headman heard  heart heathen Hindus husband India Jan Guru jungle Karan killed leave leopard live look Lutu magistrate mahut Marang  medicine mission missionary Mohammedans morning mosquito mother native neighbors night once Padre Pandu pariah dogs passed  perhaps poison pray prayers preach preachers Puchu quinine rains rainy season rice sacred bull Saheb Salku Santal boy  Santalistan servants shouting sick Sirdar Sitol Skrefsrud sleep snake Sohor soon soul stick syce talk tell things thought  tion tobacco told Tower of Silence trouble village white ants wife witch witchcraft woman women young Brani popolari

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*

ARTE TRIBALE DEI SANTAL DHODRO BANAM

ARTE TRIBALE DEI SANTAL

(english and italian version)

SANTAL TRIBAL ARTS

*

Questa pagina non sarebbe stata realizzabile senza il prezioso contributo di materiale fotorafico da parte di:

This page could not be possible 

without the precious contribute

of  pictures

by

COLLECTION MUSEE DE LA CASTRE CANNES  © PHOTO CLAUDE GERMAIN

CHRISTIAN LEQUINDRE

http://www.nepaltribalart.com/index.asp?p=65

ROBERT BRUNDAGE PETALUMA CA

http://www.artyeti.com/

SANZA ARTS PREMIERS BRUXELLES

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/

FREDERIC ROND PARIS

http://www.indianheritage.biz/

HERVE PERDIOLLE PARIS

http://herveperdriollecv.blogspot.com/

MORDACCI  COLLECTION

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/a-m-collection-all-rights-reserved/

SANATAN KAVADIYA NEW DELHI

http://www.tribalartsindia.com/

RICHARD LAIR

and text 

by

ELIO REVERA BRESCIA

http://artidellemaninere.forumattivo.it/f8-love-driven-choices-the-italian-forum-of-african-art-collectors

ETHNOFLORENCE

*******

An online

vocabulary of the Santali languge

by

EDWARD LAVALLIN PUXLEY

ON

http://books.google.com/books?ei=vZh8T8L1I4iD0QGK483TCw&hl=it&id=kKcIAAAAQAAJ&dq=chador+badoni&ots=yoby25V1pq&q=BANAM#v=onepage&q=BANAM&f=false

*****

Mus+®e de la Castre_Cannes_1991.21.1.jpg

Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

“…une vièle Sarangi, venant du Santal, nom en soi, évocateur. 

Sa présence et sa personnalité nous interpellent. 

Ce petit chef-d’oeuvre de sculpture  attire notre regard au fond du sien.  

C’est bien ici l’exemple d’un objet  d’artisanat, échappant  à son usage pour accéder à l’intemporel”.

Pierre  Fernandez   Arman

on  

“Voyages Immobiles Trente ans d’Aquisitions d’Art Primitif

du

Musée de la Castre” 

Cannes

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(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

Perché ci circondiamo di bellezza? E perché questo circondarci non ci ha mai appagato, noi uomini, di ogni dove e di ogni tempo? Per una semplice ed insieme cogente motivazione: perché ne abbiamo bisogno!

Guardo questo oggetto che cari amici hanno avuto l’ardire di porre sotto i miei occhi; l’ardire, perché conoscono la mia limitata cultura ed il mio sconfinato amore per le produzioni artistiche di un altro continente.

Ma la loro è una sfida vinta in partenza: questa straordinaria creazione, l’immagine di questa fanciulla dai seni puntuti e da un’ incredibile quanto armoniosa corolla, mi ha conquistato al primo sguardo.

Non ha importanza cosa sia.

Io ne ammiro le purissime forme, ancestrali, evocative, ardite e stupefacenti: ed i miei sensi sono appagati da quella Dea misteriosa e sublime….avita e sconosciuta: la dea della Bellezza che in ogni cultura ha ricevuto nomi diversi, ma dovunque ha lascito profondissima traccia di sé, col suo passo lieve ed incorporeo.

( Elio Revera, socioanalista)

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(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

I santal scolpirono i loro liuti antropomorfi, i Dhodro Banam, spesso nella forma di una donna, trasfigurando le risonance dell’istrumento nelle rotondità plastiche conosciute nella scultura Hindu reinterpretate al livello tribale attraverso la simplificazione  e distorsione domandata e dettata dalla particolare forma dello strumento.

The Santal

carved their one stringed lutes sometimes in the shape of  a woman,

transfigurating the resonance of the instrument into rotundities known from Hindu sculpture and brought to the tribal level by simplifications and distortions demanded by the

shape of the instrument.

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(Photo courtesy of Frederic Rond)

L’interpretazone che segue dello strumento effettuata da Stella Kramrisch è una delle più acute espresse in queto campo, e allo stesso tempo poetica.

The prophetic head with its far-seeing inlaid eyes, traversed at the back by the turning keyes as a kind of ear ornament, carried aloft on a neck of inordinate length,

is a noble mask.

Through its thin lipped mouth god may speak.

Il banam è considerato infatti un tramite tra l’umano ed il divino.

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(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Il suono dello strumento quasi emanazione del volto femminile diviene profetica voce.

Sound and mask, the prophetic voice which speaks through mask and instrument,

link auditory and visual experience in one manifestation of the numinous.

Resume from

Stella Kramrisch

(Unknown India Ritual Art in Tribe and Village)

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(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Strumento inteso come medium punto di contatto tra il visbile e l’invisibile.

The Santals believe in the magical powers of this musical instrument, a medium between the human beings and the supernatural.

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(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

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(Photo courtesy of Christian Lequindre)

Anatomia umana e iconografia del Banam.

The Banam

resume in its various parts the anatomy of an human being: head, ears, neck, chest and stomach. The string is the most important part of the instrument, because it unites the other parts of the liute together, it’s considered as the breadth of the Banam.

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(Photo Ethnoflorence)

The Head (Bonok) of the instrument represents the Space.

eck (hatok) and chest (koram) are directly connected with the Respiration and represents the equivalent natural element of the Air.

The stomach (lac) represents the fire.

The ears (lutur) the ether.

The term banam means body and represents the earth.

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(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Mito orale che ci racconta della mitologica origine del Dhodro Banam.

One oral Myth of the Santal told us the mithologyc origin of the Dhrodo Banam

 

Once upon a time  lived an old couple.

 

They had seven sons and a daughter who was the youngest of all.

The sons used to go  hunting and the sister cooked meals for them.

Some time later the couple died.

All their sons and daughter came to a forest to live  in the same way as they used to live earlier, the sister cooked the meals and looked after the house while the seven brothers went hunting.

 

One day while their sister was cutting sin arak (leaf-vegetable), one of her fingers got cut, and the blood of the wound got mixed with the vegetable.

She cooked it and served it to her brothers after their return.

They found the vegetable delicious.

So they asked their sister how the vegetable became so tasty, and found that her blood had got mixed with it.

The eldest brother wondered that if her blood could make the food so delicious, how tasty would her flesh be.

So he decided to kill her and share her flesh with his brothers.

Her body was then cut in seven pieces and each brother received a piece.

Except the youngest brother, the other ate the sister’s flesh, he went to a pond sadly with his share, the fish, the crab and all the other creatures of the place, seeing this asked him the reason of his sorrow.

The youngest brother narrated them the whole story, after that the creatures of the pond suggested him not to eat the flesh of his sister and instead to put it inside the mound of white ants.

Some year later, in the place grew  a huge guloic tree.

It started to grow beautifull flowers and a melodious sound was heard from the tree.

A jugi who often used to come to the tree for picking up flowers heard this melodious sound and remained astonished.

One day he decided to cut a brunch from the magic tree and with them he constructed the first  musical instrument the

DHODRO BANAM.

 

(Text resumed  from SANTHAL MUSIC Onkar Prasad 1985)

 

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Dancers, dressed with a Sari, analogous subject we can find   in  old photos of Elwin Verrier and  in the iconography of  some carved panels of the wedding palkee of the Santal Parganas tribe as well as of the Banam.

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 (Photo Ethnoflorence)

Ancora Stella Kramrisch caratterizza la plastica iconografia di questi pannelli istoriati dei Santal, parte delle lettighe matrimoniali tipiche dell’etnia Parganas.

 

Il parallelo con i rilievi egiziani è molto sugestivo.

 

The narrative typical carving of the panels, in low profile,  it is characterized by human figures in combined front profile view, limbs at times overlapped in telling gestures and lively actions of spontaneously formed group, and are based roughly on one groundline in common, in a cursive notation of figures, human and animal, more valuable and surely less expert, but according to Stella Kramrisch somehow paralleling Egyptian reliefs.

 

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 (Photo courtesy of Frederic Rond)

Seguono informazioni circa la lettiga matrimoniale e della loro iconografia.

 

DANCERS AND MUSICIANS

 

The Santal wedding  litter is called

 

 RAHI

 

and was made by tribal craftsmen themselves.

 

The RAHI was created with a certain amount of ceremony.

 

According to Verrier Elwin and Stella Kramrisch

 

 When work was started, two pigeons were sacrificed;

 

when it was completed the couple sat on it and were carried to the central Manjhithan where more pigeons or a goat were offered.

 

THE ACTIVITY OF CARVING WAS PART OF THE MARRIAGE    RITE,  AS    WAS THE PROCESSION     OF      THE  MARRIAGE  LITTER

 

The themes

 

The main subjects carved on the Rahi’s panels are derived from the local ceremonies, such  as marriages, the Miths of the Santal creation, the totems devoted to the twelve Santal clans, the Santal Hul or Santali rebellion of 1855, and especially the everyday life scenes.

 

A part of these themes it’s common with the carved top of the Banam.

 

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 (Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

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 (Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

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 (Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

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 (Photo Ethoflorence)

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(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

The Santal

traditionally accompanied many of their dances with two kind of drums the Tamak’ and the Tumdak’ the kettle-drum ‘nagara’ and  the oboe ‘shanai’ These musical traditions are reflects on the Banam lutes and Rahi panels iconography where the dancers are seldom accompanied by musicians too

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(Picture from Tribal Art of Middle India 1951 by Verrier Elwin)

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(Photo Ethnoflorence)

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(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

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(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

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(Photo courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

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(Photo Courtesy of Sanza Arts Premiers)

Sometimes musicians and dancers are accompanied also by acrobatic perfomers.

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(Photo Ethnoflorence)

Animalia nella iconografia dei Santal del Bihar

HORSES HORSEMEN AND ELEPHANTS

Another quite common iconography that we can find on the Rahi Panels is linked with the presence of elephants, horses and horsemen. Sometimes these representations are  linked with the marriage procession. It’s possible to find carved  a similar iconography also on the top of  the Banam

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(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

Above Exceptional iconography of a rider and horse on the back carved top of a banam lute

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(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

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(Photo courtesy of A.M.)

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(Photo Ethnoflorence)

SACRO AND PROFANO

Questo pannello eccezzionale nella resa iconografica ci presenta una sorta di fusione iconografica tra elementi sacri a destra e profani a sinistra.

Caratteristica tipica della libera inventiva di queste popolazioni, comune anche alla plastica ‘reinventata’ di tutta l’arte popolare della regione himalayana.

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(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

A mix of subjects is the iconographic base of this very interesting panel

HUNTING SCENES

Scene di caccia

archetipi universali

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(Photo Courtesy A. M.)

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(Photo courtesy A. M.)

SANTAL HUL

La rivolta dei santal

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ANIMALIA AND EVERYDAY LIFE

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(Photo courtesy Robert Brundage)

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(Photo courtesy Robert Brundage)

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(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

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(Photo courtesy A.M.)

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(Photo courtesy of A. M.)

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(Sketches from Santalistan, Pederson, Mathew A. 1913)

http://archive.org/details/sketchesfromsant00pede

Un altro strumento musicale della tradizione dei Santal è il flauto traverso, ne presentiamo qui alcuni molto interessanti con estremità in bronzo fuse a cera persa.

The flute

held an important role in the music tradition of the Santal people.

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(Photo Ethnoflorence)

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(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

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(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

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(Photo Ethnoflorence)

Two flutes of this particulary rich tipology are present also in the collection of the Musee de la Castre of Cannes.

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Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

EX RICHARD LAIR COLLECTION

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Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

EX RICHARD LAIR COLLECTION

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Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

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Courtesy of

 Collection Musée de la Castre, Cannes © Photo Claude Germain

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CHADOR BADONI

Puppet small wodden idol

Definition from 

A vocabulary of the Santali languge

by

EDWARD LAVALLIN PUXLEY

http://books.google.com/books?ei=vZh8T8L1I4iD0QGK483TCw&hl=it&id=kKcIAAAAQAAJ&dq=chador+badoni&ots=yoby25V1pq&q=BANAM#v=onepage&q=BANAM&f=false

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(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Khavadiya)

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(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

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(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

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(Photo courtesy of Sanatan Kavadiya)

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(Photo courtesy Sanatan Kavadiya)

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(Photo courtesy of Robert Brundage)

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PITTURA MAGICA DEI SANTAL

JADUPATUA

jadu = magician ; patua –or chitrakar- = painter

Santal Parganas

State of Bihar, India

(Text and pictures courtesy of  Herve Perdiolle)

Patuas and Jadupatuas from Bihar

(Creation of the world 1980)

The Jadu Patuas are painters and story tellers and go from village to village carrying their painted scrolls made of paper sheets sewn together with a bamboo stick on each extremity.

Jadu means “Magician”.

The themes they represent on the scrolls are  about a dozen . However, there is different interpretation for each theme. A Jadu Patua can, looking at one scroll, say different stories depending if his audience is Hindu, Muslim or Santal. This last ethnic group is the most important audience for the Jadu Patuas.

The Patuas live with the money that the villagers give them after listening to their stories. The fact that they are magicians give a special effect to their intervention because the villagers fear them.

One of the most revealing images of the Jadu Patuas’ role (in the Santal community) is the

“Mritu pat”

or

“image of the deaths”

. When somebody dies in a village near the Jadu Patua’s one, the “artist magician” visits the family of the dead with a small and simple image (about 3 x 2 inches) which is supposed to represent the dead in a simple way.

Only the late person’s pupil is missing.

Showing this image to the family, the Jadu Patua tells the story evoking the suffering of the dead whose soul is still trapped in hell.

The family then gives an offering to the Jadu Patua in order for him to intervene. The ritual for the Magician painter consists then to paint the dead’s pupil in order to free his soul.

The principles developed by the Jadu Patuas are :

the Baha’s feast

(Anonyme, fête de Baha, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 25×460 cm)

(Anonyme, fête de Baha, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 25×460 cm)

a strange mixture of Hindu and Santal myths showing a lot of festivities where tribal dances, sacrifices and drinking sessions scenes are mixed;

the creation of the world

(Anonyme, Création du monde, 1990, couleurs végétales sur papier, 20×420 cm)

where we can see the first human couple being born from the coupling of a goose and a gande; the painting of Kali

lai scroll painting

(Anonyme, Kali pat, 1980, couleurs végétales sur papier, 30×240 cm, collection privée.)

composed with 3 or 4 paper sheets only, showing Kali in her most terrifying aspects

and a lot of scrolls about Yama the god of hell (showing all the ill treatments, sometimes sexual, given by Yama and his servants to the dead who behaved badly during their lifetime).

It seems that the scarier the Jadu Patuas’style gets, the more highly he is regarded.

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Enquête des Arts lointains: Seront-ils admis au Louvre? Felix Feneon 1920

L’AVENTURE DES ARTS PREMIERS

LE SOURCES

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EN ROUTE VERS LE LOUVRE

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Enquête des Arts lointains: Seront-ils admis au Louvre?

Felix Feneon

1920

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En 1920 le critique Felix Feneon fait une enquete sur les ‘arts lontaine’, qui sera publiée dans le Bullettin de la vie Artistique.

A la fois l’éscrivain Guillaume Apollinaire fait campagne en faveur des “chefs-d’oeuvre exotiques” militant pour leur entrée au Louvre.

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L’enquête s’inscrit dans le cadre de la genèse de deux mouvements historiques, qui combine la naissance de la discipline anthropologique  et la découverte de l’arte negre par les artistes, peintres et sculpteurs occidentaux.

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“Lorsque le musée du Louvre recevrà l’art nègre, il y trouvera non son complément, mais son principe”

(Lucie Cousturier, peintre et escrivain, 1920)

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http://archive.org/details/lebulletindelavi22pariuoft

http://www.archive.org

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TODA TRIBE Nilgiri plateau Southern India

Travels amongst the Todas; or, The study of a primitive tribe in south India: history, character, customs, religion, infanticide, polyandry, language with outlines of the Tuda grammar (1873)

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“Among the Todas of Southern India the holy milkman, who acts as priest of the sacred dairy, is subject to a variety of irksome and burdensome restrictions during the whole time of his incumbency, which may last many years. Thus he must live at the sacred dairy and may never visit his home or any ordinary village. He must be celibate; if he is married he must leave his wife. On no account may any ordinary person touch the holy milkman or the holy dairy; such a touch would so defile his holiness that he would forfeit his office. It is only on two days a week, namely Mondays and Thursdays, that a mere layman may even approach the milkman; on other days if he has any business with him, he must stand at a distance (some say a quarter of a mile) and shout his message across the intervening space. Further, the holy milkman never cuts his hair or pares his nails so long as he holds office; he never crosses a river by a bridge, but wades through a ford and only certain fords; if a death occurs in his clan, he may not attend any of the funeral ceremonies, unless he first resigns his office and descends from the exalted rank of milkman to that of a mere common mortal. Indeed it appears that in old days he had to resign the seals, or rather the pails, of office whenever any member of his clan departed this life. However, these heavy restraints are laid in their entirety only on milkmen of the very highest class”  The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion

Frazer’s 1922

Photo credit   

http://archive.org/details/travelsamongstto00marsuoft

 

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ahttp://archive.org/details/travelsamongstto00marsuoft

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