DHAMI HUMLA NEPALESE ORACLES

DHAMIS

HUMLA 

ORACLES

 

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(Photo courtesy of Chris Lombardi)

First noted by Tucci and Snellgrove the

MASTA ARE THE MOST WELL KNOWN GODS OF JUMLA

area

linked with the

AVATAR LINE DEVTA

or incarnating gods, the  oracular religion associated with

DHAMIS

The primary sources of information about the gods individual life and histories is the

PARELI  

recited by the

DHAMI/ORACLES

during the God’s possession.

THE PARELIS ARE THE GOD’S AUTOBIOGRAPHIES.

Collectively the Masta gods are always spoken of as the

 BARA BHAI

(twelve brothers)

 

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A Dhami

collapses at the end of his trance dance and is carried back to the shaman hut by villagers.

According Gaborieau

twelve is a ‘nombre ideal plutot que reel’

(“Dieu Masta”).

Despite most Jumlis are unable to list more than five or six Bara Bhai, a compilation of all the lists collected 

 different sholars results in 33 different Masta names, 14 of which are reported by more than one sources (Campbell ).

THE FIRST AND MORE COMMON SOURCE OF THE MASTA’S NAME IS THE NAME OF THE VILLAGE IN WHICH ITS PRINCIPAL SHRINE IS LOCATED.

IN ALMOST EVERY CASE THE NAME HAS A SEMANTIC MEANING DESCRIPTIVE OF THE GOD.

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A low caste shaman

gives

the ultimate gesture of submission to a high caste shaman as he invokes the gods before a ritual trance dance.

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ACCORDING GABORIEAU THE DIFFERENTIATION OF THE MASTA GODS ON THE BASIS OF THE LOCATION OF THEIR MAIN SHRINES SUGGESTS 

THAT MASTA IS ONE GOD WHOSE INCARNATION IN DIFFERENT VILLAGES  AND DIFFERENT FORMS ARE IDEALLY REFERRED TO AS TWELVE 

BROTHERS; TO OTHER IT SEEMS TO INDICATE THAT MASTA IS A COLLECTION OF A NUMBER OF VILLAGE GODS WHOSE ORIGINS AND NATURES 

HAVE CONVERGED OVER THE YEARS.

According

Campbell  

COMMON FEATURES SUPPORT AT LEAST THE PARTIAL IDENTITY OF THE VARIOUS SEPARATE INCARNATIONS.  These common features are found in the similarity with which the shrines are organized, the regular worship performed,  in the origin stories and life-histories recounted by each brother in his PARELI

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Thakuri dhamis

 dance

in trance during a celebration marking

the beginning of Dashain, the month-long Hindu high holiday.

 

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(Photo Chris Lombardi)

Ethnoflorence 

2012

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HUMLA

PORTRAITS

 

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COMING SOON

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HIMALAYAN MASKS 

IN EXHIBITIONS

OF THE 

RECENT

PAST

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MARTIGNY

Fondation Bernard et Caroline de Watteville

(Photo Credit Le Temps)

http://www.letemps.ch

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PARIS

MUSEE DU QUAI 

BRANLY

MARC PETIT

DONATION

 

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Masque anthropomorphe.

Népal 19e siècle.

Donateur :

Marc Petit

2003 © musée du quai Branly,

Photo Thomas Duval

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2003 © musée du quai Branly, Photo Thomas Duval

 

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Masque de danse, personnage masculin. Bois à patine brune. Népal, 19e siècle Donateur Marc Petit, 2003 © musée du quai Branly

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NEPAL. CHAMANISME ET SCULPTURE TRIBALE. Christian Lequindre Marc Petit.

NEPAL

CHAMANISME ET SCULPTURE TRIBALE

CHRISTIAN LEQUINDRE

MARC PETIT

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In Jumla, one of the oldest cities in Western region of Nepal, a festival (Mela) is held in principle every year to celebrate the victory of Hindu gods against the Lakhey and Bhakkus, representing ancient tribal beliefs.

Documents extracted from a documentary filmed in 2005 in Jumla district.

Photos and text courtesy of

Christian Lequindre

. www.nepaltribalart.com

01

 The Daule protects from malevolent spirits and also from the rats. A secret name is given to the Daule by the dhami.

Les Daulé protègent des esprits-prèdateurs mais aussi des rats. Un nom secret leur est attribué par le dhami.

Il Daule protegge la casa dagli spiriti maligni ma anche dai topi. Un nome segreto gli è conferito dal Dhami.

 

02

A wooden structure on wich the Daule are attached using various techniques.

A droite, l’axe principal sur lequel les statues peuvent etre fixées par différentes techniques.

Una struttura in legno nella quale sono attaccate usando varie tecniche i Daule.

03

In the center of the temple lies an abstract sculpture and a stone both show sign of blood sacrifice.

Une sculpture abstraite et une pierre sont au centre du templion. Des sacrifices sanglants leur on été offerts.

Nel centro del templio è posta una scultura dalle fattezze astratte e una pietra, entrambi mostrano i segni di sacrifici animali.

04

Blood stains seen on the stone and anthropomorphic sculture.

Pierre et sculpture anthropomorphe maculées de sang.

I resti di sacrifici animali si rivengono sulla pietra e scultura antropomorfa.

05

The Sarki caste is originally specialized in leatherwork. In more recent times, they have been working with wood. Mr Runa Sarki continues to carve wooden statues for the community.

Runa Sarki sculpte encore des statues pour la communauté. Les Sarki, à l’origine une caste spécialisée dans le travail du cuir se sont reconvertis dans d’autres domaines, en particulier le travail du bois.

La casta dei Sarki, tradizionalmente specializzata nella lavorazione del cuoio, in tempi recenti ha iniziato a lavorare anche il legno. Mr Runa Sarki scolpisce sculture in legno per le necessità della comunità

06

Shamanic altars displaying the bells, collars of rudraksha and a small statue of  Guro.

Autel chamanique avec le indispensables cloches, coiliers de rudraksha, et petites statuettes de Guro.

In questo piccolo ‘altare’ sciamanico si possono osservare delle campane in bronzo, una collana di rudraksha e una piccola statua in bronzo di Guro.

07

Humla Festival, A Hindu man playing a female shaman-dhamini.

Une pseudo chamane dhamini.

Uno dei caratteri del festival della regione di Humla, il soggetto rappresentato è una caricatura di una donna degli sciamani-dhamini.

08

Courageously the Lakhe faces the Hindu Gods.

Courageusement le Lakhé provoque et affronte les Dieux hindous.

Il demone Lakhe fronteggia coraggiosamente le divinità Hindu.

09

Set apart from the main groups, a masked character wearing rags plays the erratic fool. He receives much attention and respect from the spactactors.

En marge de tous le Groupes, un acteur masqé, vetu de hailons arpente la rue principale, se desarticulant en soubresauts inattendus. Lui aussi recueille beaucoup d’attention et de respect de la part de spectateurs.

Isolato dalle rappresentazioni dei gruppi maggiori di figuranti, il carattere del folle errante riceve attenzione e respetto da parte degli spettatori.

010

Bhakku are played by the lowest castes, on the Hindu social scale. In this example the Kami, who specialize in metal work, continue this tradition.

Les Bhakku sont incarnés par les castes le plus basses dans l’échelle sociale hindoue. De nos jours principalement les Kami, spécialistes di travail du metal et plus particuliérement du fer, poursuivent la tradition.

011

Some of the troop.

Une partie seulement de la troupe.

Una parte dei figuranti del festival.

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Chhintang and Akuwa Chhintang are located in the Dhankuta district.

 In the eastern regions, contrary to what is generally accepted, anthropomorphic sculptures in wood are also present as protection of springs, for crossing a bridges or funeral effigies.

This region is mainly populated by Bantawa Rai, they still practice masked dances (Makhundo Kel) during various occasions.

Documents extracted from a documentary filmed in 2005 in Dhankuta district.

Photos and text courtesy of Christian Lequindre.

www.nepaltribalart.com

012

Before crossing some bridges, travellers rest on wooden platforms donated by local patrons. These rest aereas are adorned by effigies of the donor.

Avant le passage d’un pont, de longs bancs de bois forment des plateformes pour y déposer le lourdes charges. Ils sont souvent associés à une effigie protectrice, portrait d’ancetre donateur de ces aires de repos.

In prossimità dei ponti, si possono trovare delle piattaforme in legno per il riposo dei viandanti, queste strutture possono essere adornate dalle effigi dei donatori.

 

013

Sim Nag is placed at the center. These sculptures are associated with the worship of the serpent gods Nag-Nagini, rulers of the underworld.

Les fermettes disposent de piéces d’eau  avec  au centre, une déité ophidienne Sim Nag, associée au culte des Nag-Nagini, couple de serpents suoverains des mondes souterrains.

Scultura associata al culto della divinità oppidiana Nag-Nagini è posta al centro di un piccolo specchio d’acqua.

014

Statues et masques de lignées sont disposés à l’extérieur par le mai tre de maison.

Statues and masks depicting lineage are displayed by the host.

015

The ghyampa filled with fermented millet-jar are related to the worships of the ancestors who passed on the secrets of fermentation.

Les Ghyampa sont éminemment liés aux cultes des ancetres fondateurs qui leur ont transmis les secrets de la fermentation.

I Ghyampa sono essenzialmente connessi al culto degli antenati che  gli hanno trasmesso i segreti della fermentazione.

016

Statue protégeant l’accés à l’étage, espace très privé de la maison.

Statue protecting access to the private upper floor.

Statua protettrice posta a protezione del piano privato della abitazione.

018

Duwacha, ou Jogekung, à la longue barbe, et Mechacha masques. 

017

Offerings of butter lamps, rice, flowers, red pigment, sindoor, alcohol of millet and other foods are used to end the ceremony.

Des offrandes de lampes à beurre, de riz, de fleurs, de pigment rouge-sindur, d’alcool de millet et de nourriture clotureront cette cérémonie.

La fine della cerimonia è segnata da una precisa tipologia di offerte .

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About the

Authors

of 

NEPAL

SHAMANISM AND TRIBAL SCULPTURE

9782884747059[1]

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MARC PETIT

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 Writer and collector, he has donated a collection of masks from Nepal to the Musée des Arts Premiers Quai Branly, Paris. 

Among his books:

 A Masque découvert, regards sur les arts primitifs de l’Himalaya , Stock, 1995.

 La Statuaire archaïque du Népal occidental , Renaud Vanuxem, 2006.

 Le Masque de la Chine , Musée Jacquemart André, Actes Sud, 2007.

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CHRISTIAN LEQUINDRE

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Photographer and collector, he has been resident in Nepal since the 1980s.

He carried out multiple field studies between 1995 and 2005 and produced three documentaries on different masks traditions in Nepal.

He has also directed the Annapurna Gallery in Paris from 1989 to 1995.

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Publisher 

Infolio

http://www.nepaltribalart.com/index.asp?p=100

 

Jhankris- the faith Healers of Nepal PIET WARFFEMIUS EDKOOY

Jhankris- the faith Healers of Nepal

HISTORY of NEPAL

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YE0EneDT5c4

Himalayan Shaman 

the Faith Healers of Nepal in a Himalayan village The Lost Treasures of NEPAL The scene is a village Nagarkot in 

the hills around KATHMANDU. Old Nepal full documentary..must see and share samaan History TV Channel Himalayan 





 

Himalayan Shaman the Faith Healers of Nepal in a Himalayan village SAMDO Manaslu of Nepal, filmed in 2000 by Ed 

van der Kooy The scene is a village in the remote hills of Manaslu. shaman samdo samaan History TV Channel



Gai jatra procession of cows festival nepal Bhadra

 

Gai jatra 2066

on

KIRTIPUR

 

The festival of “Gai Jatra”, the procession of cows, is generally celebrated in the Nepalese month of Bhadra (August-September). The festival of cows is one of the most popular festivals of Nepal. The whole complex of Gai Jatra festival has its roots in the ancient age when people feared and worshipped Yamaraj,”the god of death”. However, the ironical sessions synonymous with the Gai Jatra festival came into tradition in the medieval period of Nepal during the reign of Malla Kings. 

 

Hence, the present form of Gai Jatra is a happy blending of antiquity and medievalism.

 

 

ethnoflorence

 

video selection

 

2012

Raute Girls Nomadic people of Nepal

ETHNOFLORENCE

VIDEO SELECTION

2012

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This video

 was taken at Tunibagar, Dailekh when we were on the way to Kalikot from Pokhara  to conduct a surgical eye camp in Kalikot and Jumla.

When we asked to tell her name to the one of the girl of Raute community, she said “there is no name of raute woman in Raute community”

.(आइमाइको नाम हुदैन). 


ethnoflorence

video selection 

2012

The Jungle Shamans Gorau Nepalese Tharu-people

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

2008 – 2016

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JEAN-LUC CORTES & JEAN CLAUDE BREZILLION

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ARTS CHAMANIQUES

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The Gorau

of the Nepalese Tharu-people can do medical wonders with their traditional knowledge of several hundred plants.

But both their knowledge and the nature they depend on are under threat, both locally and from the far outside.


They share the threats with other indigenous people around the world. 

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Ramman religious festival ritual theatre Garhwal Himalayas, India

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

VIDEO SELECTION

2012

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Ramman:

religious festival and ritual theatre of the Garhwal Himalayas, India


 

Every year in late April, the twin villages of Saloor-Dungra in the state of Uttarakhand (northern India) are marked by Ramman, a religious festival in honour of the tutelary god, Bhumiyal Devta, a local divinity whose temple houses most of the festivities. This event is made up of highly complex rituals: the recitation of a version of the epic of Rama and various legends, and the performance of songs and masked dances. The festival is organized by villagers, and each caste and occupational group has a distinct role. For example, youth and the elders perform, the Brahmans lead the prayers and perform the rituals, and the Bhandaris representing locals of the Kshatriya caste are alone entitled to wear one of the most sacred masks, that of the half-man, half-lion Hindu deity, Narasimha. The family that hosts Bhumiyal Devta during the year must adhere to a strict daily routine. Combining theatre, music, historical reconstructions, and traditional oral and written tales, the Ramman is a multiform cultural event that reflects the environmental, spiritual and cultural concept of the community, recounting its founding myths and strengthening its sense of self-worth. In order to ensure that it remains viable, the communitys priorities are to promote its transmission and to obtain its recognition beyond the geographical area in which it is practised.

Country(ies): India

© 2008 by IGNCA / Ministry of Culture

The Land of Dolpo Christoph von Furer-Haimendorf

 

The Land of Dolpo

Filmed by Christoph von Furer-Haimendorf.

Broadcast by the BBC in the 1960’s and based on fieldwork carried out in central Nepal in the 1950’s and 1960’s.

The film is part of a large archive of footage shot by Haimendorf in the Himalayas. It is put up with his permission.

Other material will be put up in due course on

http://www.alanmacfarlane.com

(under ‘Films’);

see also

http://www.digitalhimalaya.com

ethnoflorence 

Video Selection

2012