MUSEE DE LA CASTRE, CANNES, FRANCE, Himalayan Classic, Folk and Tribal Arts new stuff. ETHNOFLORENCE Indian and Himalayan Folk and Tribal arts photo Archive.

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

NEPAL TRIBAL ART MASK ETHNOFLORENCE .jpg

2008 – 2018

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MUSEE DE LA CASTRE

CANNES FRANCE

 Himalayan Classic, Folk and Tribal Arts new stuff.

ETHNOFLORENCE Indian and Himalayan Folk and Tribal arts photo Archive.

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THE PAST

 

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Old Stuff see more on

 / http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7356418/musee-de-la-castre-of-cannes-himalayan-room

 

NOW

NEW

HIMALAYAN ROOM

 

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CANNES MUSEE DE LA CASTRE
LES NOCTURNES visites jasqu’a 20,30 le 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 DECEMBRE, 2, 3, Janvier 2010.
Un événement Ville de Cannes.
Rens: 04 93 38 55 26 – www.cannes.com
Bus: 1,2,7, et 20, Arret “Souquet”.

Among the shamanic items on display imposing  the shaman ritual ‘armor’ or ‘vetement’ from the Dhaulagiri area, from the same area a ‘baguette de tambour’ with an interesting antrophomorphic top namaste posture figure and the symbols of the three worlds exactly, from an iconographic view point, carved below; a particulary decorated  holy vase bumba and ‘his’ wooden carved altar or ‘autel’ (in the back side of wich, not visible to the public, there is carved a primitive figure in namaste posture;  the best items of the exhibition are however in my opinion  a massive phurbu with a shaman ‘errant’ (?)on the top, and a Dhyangro handle with the same exact iconography (a part the top phurbu figure, bien sure), from the same artistic hand and … shaman’s kit very probably. In the upper section of the handle is exceptionally carved an human figure, a shaman, in namaste posture.

The great part of these new acquisition of the Museum were on display in the Mr Francois Pannier exhibition of the 2007 in Paris and publicated in the catalogue edit by the Galerie Le Toit du Monde at that time.

 In a Multimedia section of the new room of the Musee de la Castre are available some shamanic B/W pics from the photo collection of Mr Renzo Freschi (Milan, Italy).

Only one primitive figure, the female, of the couple traditionally attribuited to the carvers of the  Lake Rara area ,  remains now on display in direct contrapposition with a Vishnu wooden panel carved in  high relief and linked with the Newari art production of the Katmandu Valley.

The masks on display are now 14, in great part linked with the Monpa culture of the Arunachal Pradesh (follow a short list below).

In a ‘vetrine’ devoted to the Tibetan culture some classic painted Tsakali, linked with ritual porpouses as well as consacrations, initiations, funerals; a “Chapeaux Noirs” ritual and symbolic ornament linked with the headdresses used in this dance that is part of the most vast Cham representation, a ‘tablier’ representing Mahakala, a Perak from Ladakh, a wooden block with protective motifs (among the others).

Short list of the masks now on diplay:

-Raijbanshi polichromy Monkey mask from south east area  of Therai (ENG) Singe, Style Raijbanshi, Nepal sud-est du Terai (zone frontaliere indo-nepalaise)(FRA). Maschera  policroma rappresentante una scimmia nello stile dei Raijbanshi, area del Terai,  sud-est nepal (ITA).
-Old  woman monochromy mask, Monpa-sherdukpen style, India, Arunachal Pradesh (ENG). Vielle femme, style Monpa-sherdukpen, Inde,Arunachal Pradesh (FRA).
Maschera femminile attribuibile all’area di produzione dei Monpa-sherdukpen, India,Arunachal Pradesh(ITA).
– Yak polichromy head mask, Monpa-sherdukpen style, India, Arunachal Pradesh (ENG). Tete de yak, style Monpa-sherdukpen, Inde,Arunachal Pradesh, bois polychrome, cornes et polis de yak (FRA). Testa di yak lignea policroma, corna e peli di yak, Monpa-sherdukpen, India,Arunachal Pradesh(ITA).
– Divine personage mask, Nepal, wood,  iron, kaolin (ENG). Personage divin, Nepal, Bois, fer, kaolin (FRA).
Maschera di personaggio divino, Nepal, legno, ferro, caolino (ITA).
– Horse mask, Bhoutan, polichromy papier masché (ENG) Cheval, Bhoutan, Papier maché polychrome (FRA). Maschera rappresentane una protome equina, carta pesta policroma, Butan (ITA).
– Male mask, trace of pholicromy, Monpa-sherdukpen style, India, Arunachal Pradesh (ENG).
Bouffon (?)  style Monpa-sherdukpen, Inde,Arunachal Pradesh, bois , traces de polichromie (FRA). Maschera maschile lignea con tracce di policromia, Monpa-sherdukpen, India,Arunachal Pradesh(ITA).
-Krodha mask, Tibetan cultural area, papier maché (ENG) Divinité protectrice à l’aspect courroucé (Khrodha). Aire culturelle tibetaine. Papier maché polychrome. (FRA). Maschera policroma della divinita protrettrice Krodha, carta pesta, area di produzione della maschera sottostante l’influenza culturale tibetana (ITA).
-Male mask, Nepal (ENG). Ascete-mendiant (?) Nepal (FRA). Maschera maschile di asceta mendicante (?), Nepal (ITA).
-Male mask. Nepal Katmandu valley, polichromy wood (ENG) Personnage masculin, Nepal, Vallée de Katmandu, bois polychrome (FRA). Maschera maschile, area di provenienza valle di Katmandu, legno policromo (ITA).
-Nyapa or Nyaro mask, Monpa-sherdukpen area, India, Arunachal Pradesh (ENG). Personnage démoniaque (Nyapa or Nyaro), style Monpa-sherdukpen, Inde, Arunachal Pradesh, Peau de chevre, feutre, crin, textile (FRA). Spettacolare maschera di personaggio demoniaco  Nyapa or Nyaro, Monpa-sherdukpen, India, Arunachal Pradesh, peli e crini di cavallo, feltro e tessuto (ITA).
– Couple of Kiengpa masks, Monpa-sherdukpen area, India, Arunachal Pradesh (ENG). Couple de Kiengpa squelettes , style Monpa-sherdukpen, Inde, Arunachal Pradesh, bois, kaolin, pigment rouge (FRA). Coppia di maschere Kiengpa, Monpa-sherdukpen, India, Arunachal Pradesh, legno, caolino, pigmenti di colore rosso (ITA).
-Crow monochromy mask, Tibet/Nepal (ENG). Corbeau Tibet, zone frontaliere sino-nepalaise(?), bois peint, textile(FRA): Maschera di corvo a monocromia scura, area di provenienza Tibet/Nepal, area di ingluenza culturale Tibet(?)(ITA).

 

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International extra-european musical instruments collection of the Musee de la Castre of Cannes, coming soon.

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COMING SOON.

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 COMING SOON.

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BADE, THE BATTLE CELEBRATING PEACE, REVIVING ANCIENT FORGOTTEN RITUALS. Photos and Text courtesy Mr NABIN BARAl

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

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2008-2016

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BADE

THE BATTLE CELEBRATING PEACE

– REVIVING ANCIENT FORGOTTEN RITUALS.

Photos and Text courtesy Mr NABIN BARAl: http://nepalthroughthelens.blogspot.com        and http://www.demotix.com/news/save-greater-himalayas

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 The celebration with colors, music and dance- For the last day, the characters changed costumes and joined the head lama in a dance to drive the devil out of the village.

Hundreds of years of preservation and perseverance nourished and timely practiced are the basic attributes that gives birth to a cultural phenomenon.

Sometimes the culture becomes identity and other time identity reflects the culture.

Manang, a mystical Himalayan District of Nepal, preserves itself within the largest protected area of Nepal, Annapurna Conservation Area, rated by B.B.C as one of the 12 best walks of the world! Manang Valley – indigenous people prefer to say Nyeshang Valley – is a combination of scenic grandeur and biodiversity with multicultural and multiethnic dimensions. This valley is largely occupied by Buddhists, and in some parts, Bon Po believers who worship nature as God.

Manang has its own original and unique sets of customs, cultures and festivals.

02 Bade, the battle festival celebrating peace-7[1]

 

The performance of Evil.

At the last day some villagers are masked with evil .The masked evil performs against the head lama and the dancing worriers.

The spectators are chased and dispersed by the evil.

This brings more fun in the festival. The spectators again gather with lama and dancing worriers to fight against the evil.

03 Bade, the battle festival celebrating peace-8[2]

The performance of head lama against evil.

The villagers get together and make boundary of rope.

They drive the masked evils in side the boundary of rope.

The head Lams performs with Mantras and religious songs against the evil to drive it away permanently from the village.

People believe that it maintain peace in the Village.

04 Bade, the battle festival celebrating peace-9[3]

The metaphoric end of evil.

At the last moment lama burns a small cone structure which is made up of straw.

Pest of red powder is also mixed with the straw to represent blood. Earlier 12 virgins used to be sacrificed to the Gods at the beginning of the Bade festival. Owing to Buddhist beliefs, the practice was stopped and goats were offered instead. Later, only the tips of the ears of goats were offered. Now, because the Nyeshang community follows the peaceful middle path of the Buddha, Bade festival in future will not encourage animal sacrifice.

Manang celebrates Bade Festival once in three years, on the 1st day of the tenth month of Tibetan Calendar.

Bade has more than one expression according to the local people.

On one side, it’s a Nyeshang oral tradition and an intricate performing art, basically a play, where mother Earth is the stage, with courtyards and terraced fields forming the backdrop.

Bade is full of sounds, colors and intense drama, which tell a story of two warring brothers. On the other side, it is a performance which retells the story of a Ghale king sending his army off to battle. Both expressions meet in the purposes and objectives of the festival, which is to free the village of evil spirits, demons, enemies, diseases and natural calamities, to ensure peace, security and prosperity in the village.

In the late 1950s, King Mahendra came to the valley and, seeing the hard life of the settlers, as well as their strength and determination, declared that the people of Manang need not to pay the government tax if they wanted to import and export goods from Nepal. The people of Manang have become prosperous traders, hoteliers, and businessmen. Many have moved down from the harsh and beautiful valley in north central Nepal to Kathmandu, but, at the same time, made their culture and traditional way of life vulnerable. At present, most of the younger generations of Manang are living either in big cities of Nepal or in foreign countries for the sake of education, business and better life.

05 Bade, the battle festival celebrating peace-1[1]

The worriers are back.

Ancient rituals of Bade were forgotten since more than two decades.

It needed practice for the worriers to play their role .So the day before the festival is set to begin, the men of Manang gather in a monastery to rehearse. The Rehearse is finished. Two warring brothers (Kings) with their army and yaks are back in the battle field.

06 Bade, the battle festival celebrating peace-2[1]

 

The battle with smiles.

When the worriers reach a main square just near Buddhist Stupa, the battle festival Bade begins.

In a poetic war, the two brothers who are camped on opposite sides berate each other through the ‘Dohari’ songs – a form of traditional ballad song.

Through song and satire, they fight out their battle

In 2004, the younger generations saw Bade for the first time since the past 25 years. Two decades ago, the Bade tradition started to decline, as local people migrated to Kathmandu and took with them economic and cultural resources. The Destination Manang Campaign of 2004 reinstated it. But it was only from October 25 – 27 of 2007 that it was fully revived with the ancient rituals which were forgotten since many years. The villagers hope that by reviving the Bade festival, they can reconnect the youth with the roots of their culture, and share it through tourism.
There are two different groups. The narration begins with two brothers visiting a temple. The elder brother is offended when he finds that his younger brother has visited the temple before him. The fight or rather the play of Bade begins. In a poetic war, the two brothers who are camped on opposite sides berate each other through the ‘Dohari’ songs – a form of traditional ballad song. Through song and satire, they fight out their battle. To boost the morale of their teams, both sides also display their war skills through role-play.

Earlier 12 virgins used to be sacrificed to the Gods at the beginning of the Bade festival. Owing to Buddhist beliefs, the practice was stopped and goats were offered instead. Later, only the tips of the ears of goats were offered. Now, because the Nyeshang community follows the peaceful middle path of the Buddha, Bade festival in future will not encourage animal sacrifice.

07 Bade, the battle festival celebrating peace-3[1]

Worriers act of attack with ancient weapon.

These weapons were locked in a small monastery since two decades.

The Destination Manang Campaign of 2004 provided these weapons to the worriers’ hand. The weapons are made up of wood. The attack is full of fun and laughter.

It reminds the ancient way of attack but in a play full manner because Bade is the battle festival celebrating peace.

Bade, the battle festival celebrating peace-4[1]

A worrier sings the ‘Dohari’ songs, a form of traditional ballad song.

He was singing the song in a louse voice.

Although he was reviving the ancient rituals, the loud melody was not only expressing the story of the war but it was also requesting to new generations of Manang to take the responsibility to protect their battle festival Bade, which celebrates peace.

Bade, the battle festival celebrating peace-5[1]

 

 Battle ends with laughter and joys-Carried away in their various roles, sometimes the villagers do start a brawl that is soon controlled by the younger soldiers who stand between the supporters of the two brothers.

But actual violence does not occur.

When things start getting out of hand, villagers step in to bring things back to normal.

In facts nobody wins and no body is defeated.

At last the culture is preserved for the next time

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GAI JATRA, COW FESTIVAL, NEPAL Vincent Van Berg photos. MAUJA VILLAGE, KASKI DISTRICT, NEPAL Tod Ragsdale photo.

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

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2008-2016

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MAUJA VILLAGE KASKI DISTRICT

Nepal circa 1973-74
(Photo courtesy Tod Ragsdale http://taragsdalephotos.com/)

-Mauja is a Gurung village  of  Kaski District in the Gandaki Zone of northern-central Nepal, the photo was took by the photographer Tod Ragsdale in the early 70’s.

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A basament of ‘brut’ stones, a sort of archetipic style for this primitive altar,  in which we can see a group of protective/commemorative (?) poles carved in a very minimal style. The presence of some metal trisul and of  wide bells confirme  that we are in front  of an holy place. 


According  Mr. Christian Lequindre opinion,  the Masta culte, linked to those kind of sort of  AXIS MUNDI  POLES , is sporadically spread till the western central region despite most of the scholar of the matter limite than to the Karnali area. That’s an evident example in Gurung village context, the pic was took in 1973/74. As demonstrated by mr Christhian in his recent catalogue there are also wooden poles in the eastern area of Nepal, but refering  here to ancestors and funerary cult.

-GAI JATRA, COW FESTIVAL, NEPAL, Photos courtesy Vincent Van den Berg http://web.mac.com/vincentvandenberg/shi/Index.html .

Gai Jatra is a  festival celebrated by the Newar community of Kathmandu valley every year since the malla period at the beginning day of Bhadra, a Nepali month according to the lunar calendar, Gai means Cow   and Jatra means in Nepali language.. It is one of the most popular festivals of Nepal. In Kathmandu the festival is held around Basantapur, in Bhaktpaur around the old Bhaktapur city and in Lalitpur ,around the Patan Durbar Square. The festival lasts for a week.

01 GAI JATRA NEPAL

(http://web.mac.com/vincentvandenberg/shi/Index.html )

On the first day of the festival, either actual cows or human beings with oval shaped baskets with painted pictures of a cow and Ganesh on either side of the basket with straw horns to represent cows are sent round the town.

02 GAI JATRA COW FESTIVAL

(http://web.mac.com/vincentvandenberg/shi/Index.html )

03 GAI JATRA FESTIVAL

 (http://web.mac.com/vincentvandenberg/shi/Index.html )

04 GAI JATRA KATMANDU

 (http://web.mac.com/vincentvandenberg/shi/Index.html )

The  festival comes just a day after the Janai Purnima (celebrated during the full moon day). The Gai Jatra commemorates the death of people during the   year,  is a healthy festival which enables the people to accept the reality of death and to prepare oneself for the life after death. The festival of cows is one of the most popular festivals of Nepal. It is believed that Cow is indispensable to help  the dead souls to cross a  holy river before to arrive in heaven, in this  way the dead souls catches the tail of cow as help to cross this river.

05 GAI JATRA FESTIVAL BASANTAPUR

(http://web.mac.com/vincentvandenberg/shi/Index.html )

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(http://web.mac.com/vincentvandenberg/shi/Index.html )

According one  belief  the celebration of  the Gai Jatra begun when the King Pratap Malla lost his son, and his wife fall in a very deep sorrow, so was decided that a person from each family that have lost one people during the year should come to the queen to show that many others were actually in the same pain. Since this event begun the tradition of celebrating Gai Jatra festival.  

According another one  belief the festival begun when some people  were called to make laugh the sadden queen, wife of Pratap Malla, some of these started to make different jokes and particulary phantomime and satires direct to hit  the higly ranked people of the society, so the queen started to laugh. In the recent past, the Gai Jatra, before the declaration of the republic, was the only place in wich was possible to satire the Kings of Nepal.
In the past people who have lost a member of the  family in the previuos year were part of the street procession led by a real cow.  In the present days the processione is led by a cow structure in bamboo in which the photo of the lost people are hanged with the name.

 

07 GAI JATRA A

(http://web.mac.com/vincentvandenberg/shi/Index.html )

In the festival the children are dressed in godly customs, to bless the celebrating dead souls. In the stik dance, the dancers with their sticks clear the path chasing ghosts and are focused  to destroy their nails which are hindrances for the dead souls to reach the Haven.

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(http://web.mac.com/vincentvandenberg/shi/Index.html ).

The Gai Jatra  festival in Bhaktapur:

 Gai Jatra 2007

 

 

Kings of the forest, the cultural resilience of Himalayan hunter-gatherers. Jai Purnima Festival Patan.-Faces of Devotion, Indian Sculpture From the Figiel Collection On view April 10, 2010 to January 16, 2012 Peabody Essex Museum (MA)

Kings of the Forest:

The Cultural Resilience of Himalayan Hunter-Gathers , by Jana Fortier, University of Hawaii Press, 2009.

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A hunter-gatherer society is one whose primary subsistence method involves the direct procurement of edible plants and animals from the wild, foraging and hunting without significant recourse to the domestication of either.

 “There is no need for us to live like you.”

The RAUTE PEOPLE of the Karnali and Makahali regions of Western Nepal is a nomadic indigenous ethnic group, which population is estimated in around 650 persons, their language is classified as Tibeto-Burman, closely related to the one spoken by two related ethic groups, the Ban Raji and Raij , the closest documentated language to the Raute is probably the Chepang, spoken by this ethnic group of West-Central Nepal. Officially recongnized by the Nepalese Government, the Raute are known for their life-subsistence linked with the  hunting of  macaque, langur monkeys, bats, porcoupine, and the gathering of wild forest tubers, fruits, and greens. To obtain grain, iron and cloths they trade handmade typical wooden bowls and boxes to the local farmers. The Raute however don’t sell other products of the forest, bushmeat or forest medicinal plants.

In the present  world  this last  primitive hunter-gatherer society  living in the monsoons rainforest of Western Nepal  struggles with the  deforestation and encroachment, language loss, political domination by surrounding communities.  The book explores how this ethnic group is tryong to maintain its traditional way of life .

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 MASQUES de l’HIMALAYA ,

Martigny – Valais – Suisse 16 May 2009 a fin Decembre 2010 – Fondation Bernard et Caroline de Watteville Fondation a but culturel.

himalayan Mask at Martigny 2

Rue du Levant 34 1920 Martigny Tel. 41 (0) 27 720 49 20

himalayan Masks at Martigny 3

www.museesaintbernanrd.ch

himalayan mask Martigny

See more on: http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7254349/masques-de-lhimalaya–martigny–valais–suiss

-Shamans holding Dhyangro drums, Rasuwa Disrict.

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Photo courtesy Ujjwal Pyakurel “Prayas” Katmandu Nepal. See more on http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6909408/dhyangro-dhyangro-nepalese-shaman-drum-wester

-JAI PURNIMA FESTIVAL PATAN. Photos courtesy Vincent Van den Berg http://web.mac.com/vincentvandenberg/shi/Index.html .

 

JAI PURNIMA FESTIVAL (4)

 

(http://web.mac.com/vincentvandenberg/shi/Index.html)

-The nepalese shaman is the bridge, the link and mediator between the real and invisible world.

The double sided membrane drum Dhjangro is the peculiar, indispensable, and one  of the most important, pharaphernalia of the western nepal  shamans.

Small metal objects and seeds are hooked inside the drum.

The drumstick is named Gajo.

JAI PURNIMA FESTIVAL (6)

(http://web.mac.com/vincentvandenberg/shi/Index.html)

A rich group of phurba daggers and Dhyangro handles is edited in Art Chamanique Népalais, Editions Findakly, Catalogue of the exhibition Masques & Arts Tribaux Himalayens, Galerie Le Toit Du Monde Paris 2007. http://www.letoitdumonde.net/actualites/index.html

DHYANGRO HANDLES AND PHURBUS

Other items are present in Art Tribal Du Nepal, Les Editions Errance, Catalogue of the omonimous exhition at the Ile Du Demon Galerie, 1981 Paris.

The handle of the drum has the same  iconogrphy of another ‘weapon’ of the Nepalese shamans, the ritual and talismanic dagger named in Tibetan phurba and in Sanskrit Kila,  used to restrain evil entity and harmful occult influences.

The iconography  of the Dhyangro handle  can vary from one local group to another, from the geometric to the more elaborate and figurated style.

According the research of Mr Michael Oppitz this kind of artifact is an exception among the normal iconography of the Asian shamans drums, in which we can find the prevalence of single-faced streched frame drums.

The single-faced shamanic’s drum is diffused also in Nepal, Mr Oppitz divides the localization of these drums in three regional and local  categories: the Dhaulagiri  type localized  among the North Magar Shamans, the Chantel, Bhuja Khola and the Kami of the Jajarkot district; a second tipology diffused in the Annapurna area and used by the Thakali and Gurung shamans; a third kind called of the “jungle” charachteristic of the Chepang shamans. (‘The metamorphosis of a Ritual object’ in Art Chamanique Népalais, Editions Findakly, Catalogue of the exhibition Masques & Arts Tribaux Himalayens, Galerie Le Toit Du Monde Paris 2007.

JAI PURNIMA FESTIVAL

http://web.mac.com/vincentvandenberg/shi/Index.html)

 

The double sided drum Dhyangro has a close morphological, but not iconographic, affinity with the analogous double sided tibetan drum called NGA-CHEN in which we can re-find an handle, in a form of lotus, installed in the wodden frame of this double sided instrument.

According Mr Eric Chazot some shamans of the western Nepal don’t use the drum themselves, so the musical accompaniment, essential for the trance, is provided by the untouchables (Art and Shamanism in the Himalayas, on Tribal Arts, 1:1/2000) http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/himalayas/

In the two following pics an assistant of the shaman hold an holy vase bumba.

JAI PURNIMA FESTIVAL (2)

(http://web.mac.com/vincentvandenberg/shi/Index.html)

The top section of the Phurbus/Dhyangro handle is normally constituted of three faces with different expressions representing human emotions: one  wrathful, one indifferent, the third Joyful.

 A Vajra (in Sanskrit or rdo-rje in Tibetan) or thunderbolt-diamond is carved in the central part of the item held in place by “eternal knots”. On the top of the triangular blade of the Dhyangro handle/phurba we can normally find the representation of the sea-divinity named  Makara (in sanskrit,chu-srin in Tibetan) a monster half crocodile and half elephant. Seldom the makara is replaced with the effigy of Garuda or like in one example of our collection by the really geometric representation of a ram-head. Rarely by anthropomorphic figures. In one piece of our collection the makara figure is ‘crowned’ with three human primitive faces.

JAI PURNIMA FESTIVAL (3)

(http://web.mac.com/vincentvandenberg/shi/Index.html)

According to Mr Francoise Pannier the central structure of the item, in which the Vajra is positioned vertically above the skull of the Makara could recall the myth of Indra freeing the waters of the earth and killing the serpent Vritra who  had stolen all the water of the world (‘Phurbu, Un hypothese sur ses origines’ in Art Chamanique Népalais, Editions Findakly, Catalogue of the exhibition Masques & Arts Tribaux Himalayens, Galerie Le Toit Du Monde Paris 2007). http://www.letoitdumonde.net/actualites/index.html

The blade bursts from the jaws of the Makara and  has a three sided strucure, in which are traditionally carved single or entwined pairs of snakes (naga in sanskrit, klu in Tibetan). Their talismanic presence gave to the item the power to make it rain, they are also the guardians of the water and of the undeworld.
Others subjects carved on the singles blades are the moon and the sun, the trident (Trisul) symbol of the God Shiva, representation of shamans in namaste posture or holding a Dhyangro, the ritual vase  bumba, the water bowls etc.

For an iconographic’s anthology of bumba simbols see on ART CHAMANIQUE NEPALAIS – NEPALESE SHAMANIC ART, pag. 80/81 Editions Findakly 2007. http://www.letoitdumonde.net/actualites/index.html

-Faces of Devotion, Indian Sculpture From the Figiel Collection On view April 10, 2010 to January 16, 2012  Peabody Essex Museum (MA)

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The Peabody Essex Museum (MA) recently acquired the Dr. Leo Figiel Collection of Indian sculpture––widely-regarded as the finest collection of its kind.

This exhibition presents a dramatic selection of ritual bronzes spanning the last millennium featuring depictions of deified heroes, pastoral gods and goddesses, and totemic animal spirits. These bronzes were principally made for Hindu ritual practice in the west and southwest regions of India and are the best examples of local and vernacular artistry. A complement to neighboring galleries of traditional and contemporary Indian art, this exhibition offers an opportunity to explore the connections between India’s artistic past and present.

 

The painted world of the Warlis. Tribal Art of Middle India. Divine Support: Ghurras Wooden Churning-rod holders from Nepal.

-The Painted World of The Warlis. Art and Ritual of the Warli Tribes of Maharashtra. Shodhara Dalmia. Lalit Kala Akademi, 1988, New Delhi.

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http://www.exoticindiaart.com/book/details/NAB034/

-Tribal art of Middle India. Verrier Elwin. Oxford University Press, 1951.

the tribal art....pic

http://www.quarksinthepark.org.uk/india/india.html .

-Nepalese shamanic drums and dhyangro handles.

NEPALESE SHAMANIC DRUM

The double sided membrane drum Dhyangro is the peculiar, indispensable, and one  of the most important, pharaphernalia of the western nepal  shamans. 

NEPALESE SHAMANIC DRUM a

The nepalese shaman is the bridge, the link and mediator between the real and invisible world.

NEPALESE SHAMANIC DRUM b

See more on http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6909408/dhyangro-dhyangro-nepalese-shaman-drum-wester

– Nepalese Shamanic ritual dagger phurbu.

Nepalese phurbu

Coming soon.

-Divine Support: Ghurras Wooden Churning-rod Holders From Nepal by  Paul De Smedt Paperback (2000).

 GHURRAS DIVINE SUPPORT

 

Paul de Smedt, is a Belgian industrial engineer , in this  book , the first devoted to this matter, the author explores the traditional use of wooden churning-rod holders generally known in the artistic  folk tradition of  Nepal as ghurras, putting  forward a system of classification in order to build up a symbolic interpretation of these items.

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The Ghurras are  anthropomorphic carved  objects  used to guide the churning-rod during the churning of milk in order to produce butter.

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-Pic from the 2007 exhibition of the “GALERIE LE TOIT DU MONDE”  (http://www.letoitdumonde.net/)   at the  Mairie du 6e -Salon du Vieux Colombier. 

More on http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/5334991/masques–arts-tribaux-himalayens–tribal-art      

and   http://www.letoitdumonde.net/actualites/index.html .


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In the August of 1991 and  for the first time in his  life  Mr De Smetd came across this fascinating wooden object on a stall at the ‘Grote zavel’ antique market in Brussels. He  was deeply impressed by this sculpture, which was distinctly anthropomorphic in character. The author remember how the  magnificent patina of these item gleamed in the sunlight,  moreover, the sculpture emanated a smell of rancid butter and milk. The stallholder informed him that it was known as a NETTI  or NETTLE  and had been collected in Nepal. He could tell him nothing specific about the real function or exact meaning of the object expect that it was perhaps an ‘amulet’ or  something linked with the milk or butter.

So Mr De Smetd  began to find the real meaning of this  object. He  tried to built up a collection of these items in order to give to his investigation  statistical basis. This  was the beginning of a passionate and fascinating cultural adventure. During a visit at the Rietberg museum in Zurich the Athor,  assisted by Prof. Bar,  found a publication, issued by the parisian gallery ‘Le toit du monde’  (http://www.letoitdumonde.net/)  which provided some of the first information on the matter.

This mysterious object was surely  a holder for a churning rod , commonly used for churning milk in Nepal.

Some passages in the text were  however not clear for Mr De Smetd : ‘Les Magars, ethnie Tibeto-Birmane etablie dans les collines de l’ouest et du centre qui vont des hautes valls jusqu’aux Plaines du Terai, fabriquent les elements de baratte terminee par des ailettes dans le recipient de battage.’ (Patrick Pevenage). This citation might generate the impression that the manufacture of these objects was only linked  to the Magar tribe.

During his successive trips to Nepal in 1996, 1997 and 1998 the author made many mountain excursions  with his  friends Sukre Ale, Dawa, Surendra, Krisna, Kazi, his grand daughter Sara and his wife Maria. These excursions allowed them to explore the hilly countryside around Kathmandu, Pokhara, Sirubari, Tansen and Gorkha and gave also them the opportunity to establish contact with elderly Nepalese farmers and herdsmen from various different tribes castes.

From their direct conversations with these people of the place, Mr De Smetd could conclude with certainty that almost every tribe and caste make wooden churning- rod holders, each of them in their own specific symbolic way.

The author remarkes also that there are cases of eclecticism in transition areas or as a consequence of migrations. This fact is interesting and important  to explains the rich variety of design of these objects, although they do possess a surprising unity in form due to their anthropomorphic shape and mythological symbolism.

These functional and ritual items are known with different names, depending upon the tribe or caste concerned: tar, tara, nethi, ghurra, ghurlu, ghorlo, loti, neti, netti, in  the  Kathmandu ‘market’  are  known as neti or ghurra.

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Himalayan crowned mask, Martino Nicoletti Books, Kevin Bubrisky books, Santal people Tribal Arts, a Resume,Nepalese shamanic ritual daggers Phurbu coming soon. Ramman religious Masked festival of the Garwal Himalayas coming soon.

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

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2009

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HASANA MAGAZINE

NEPALI NATIONAL MONTHLY

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MARTINO NICOLETTI

BOOKS

SEE MORE

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7369097/martino-nicoletti–himalayan-volumes

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KEVIN BUBRISKI

SEE HERE

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7442685/kevin-bubriski–portrait-of-nepal–1993-power

kevin bubriski

 

************************************************SANTAL PEOPLE TRIBAL ARTS A RESUME

SANTAL WEDDING PALKEE PANEL

About the SANTAL BANAM se more on:

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6109784/14-dhodro-banam-santal-banam-santal-people-lu
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6241521/art-et-musique-des-santal-vieles-dhodro-banam
http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6250339/art-et-musique-des-santal-vieles-dhodro-banam
http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/santal/

About the SANTAL  CARVED WEDDING PALKEE PANELS see more on:

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/6221941/panneaux-de-palanquins-de-mariage-santal
http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7109086/santal-parganas-people-carved-wodden-panels-o

About the SANTAL FLUTES see more on:

 http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/6163132/4-tribal-santal-flutes-santal-people-tribal-a .

About the SANTAL PAINTED SCROLLS  visit the Hervé Pedriolle collection , se more on:
http://santalparganas.blogspot.com/

About the Oral Tradition and Primal Elements in the Santhal Musical Texts see the interesting writing  by Mr Onkar Prasad  on:

http://ignca.nic.in/ps_01014.htm .

About the CARVED SANTAL DOORS see more on:

http://sanza.skynetblogs.be/post/5546402/portes-santal–orissa-bihar

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MASK

(Inventory no. 22)

HIMALAYAN BLACK CROWNED MASK

I have seen and collected in the years a wide number of Himalayan crowned masks, the style of which is always different and peculiar . Another  never explored field of Himalayan art.

 

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NEPALESE SHAMANIC RITUAL DAGGER

PHURBU COMINS SOON

 

HIMALAYA SHAMAN PHURBU

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NEPAL SHAMAN PHURBU

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INTERESTING NEPAL MASK

SEE MORE

http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7297419/himalayan-tribal-mask-ethnoflorence-coming-so

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RAMMAN

Religious MASKED  festival and ritual theatre of the Garhwal Himalayas, India, coming soon.

RAMMAN FESTIVAL

Photo credit IGNCA http://www.ignca.nic.in/ramkatha_0001.htm

 

-WESTERN NEPAL, THE ARCHETYPIC  ICONOGRAPHY  OF A LIVING ARTISTIC TRADITION  PART I and II starting from http://ethnoflorence.skynetblogs.be/post/7721880/giuseppe-tucci-nepal-alla-scoperta-dei-malla

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