Nepalese and Indian Monkey masks.
ETHNOFLORENCE COLLECTION AND PHOTO ARCHIVE.
Nepalese monkey masks in the Exhibition Voyage en Mongolia, Musee International du Carnaval et du Masque of Binche. Photo courtesy Arts Premier Collection Bruxelles.
Nepalese monkey mask at Musee de la Castree of Cannes (FRA) (Photo Ethnoflorence 2009 – Ethnoflorence Himalayan Archive).
Nepalese monkey mask. Photo Ethnoflorence, Ethnoflorence Himalayan Archive.
Nepalese monkey mask at the James Cohan Gallery (New York 533 W, 26th street) in the exhibition “Mask”. Photo Courtesy Evan P. Cordes http://www.pheezy.com/ .
N1 Nepalese monkey mask, frontal view.
N1 Forehead deatil view.
N1 Another interesting frontal view detail.
N1 Side B view.
N2 Frontal view.
N2 Forehead detail view.
N2 Frontal view detail.
N2 Side A view.
N2 Side B view.
Monkey mask and terracotta elephant. Photo Ethnoflorence, Ethnoflorence Himalayan Archive.
N3 Newari Monkey mask (?)
N.3 Detail view.
N.4 Nepalese Monkey mask.
N4 Frontal view detail.
N4 Frontal view detail.
N4 Frontal view detail.
N4 Side A view.
N4 Side A view detail.
N4 Side A view detail.
N4 Side A view detail.
N4 Side B view.
N4 Side B view detail.
N4 Top view of the mask.
N4 Back side view.
N4 Back sid view detail.
Nepalese monkey mask in Modigliani style. Photo Ethnoflorence, Ethnoflorence Himalayan Archive.
N.5 Nepalese or Northern Indian crowned Hanuman mask.
N5 Forehead detail view.
N5 Frontal view detail.
N5 Frontal side A view.
N5 Frontal side B view.
N5 Frontal view detail.
N5 Side A view.
N5 Side A view detail.
N5 Side B view.
N5 Side B view detail.
Hanuman Art Mythology and Folklore.
N6 Frontal view.
N6 Frontal view detail.
N6 Frontal view detail.
N6 Frontal view detail.
N6 Side A view detail.
N6 Side B view.
N6 Side B view detail.
N6 Top of the mask.
N6 Back side view.
N6 Back side view detail.
Monkey face in the top of a lute.
N7 Frontal view.
N7 Forehead detail view.
N7 Frontal view detail.
N7 Side A view.
N7 Side A view detail.
N7 Side A view detail.
N7 Side A view detail.
N7 Side B view.
N7 Side B view detail.
N7 Side B view detail.
N7 Back side view.
N8 Frontal view.
N8 Frontal view detail.
N8 Frontal view detail.
N8 Side A view.
N8 Side A view detail.
N8 Side A view detail.
N8 Side A view detail.
N8 Side B view.
N8 Side B view detail.
N8 Side B view detail.
N8 Side B view detail.
N8 Back side view detail.
N8 Top of the mask view.
N8 Base of the mask.
N9 Hanuman crowned mask. Frontal view.
N9 Frontal view detail.
N9 Frontal view detail.
N9 Side A view.
Side A view detail.
Side A view detail.
N9 Side A view detail.
N9 Side B view.
N9 Side B view detail.
N9 Side B view detail.
N9 Back side view .
Nepalese monkey mask. Photo Ethnoflorence, Ethnoflorence Himalayan Archive.
N10 Frontal view.
N10 Frontal view detail.
N10 Frontal view detail.
N10 Side A view.
N10 Side A view detail.
N10 Side A view detail.
Side B view.
N10 Side B view detail.
N10 back side view.
From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanuman .
Hanumān, (Tamil : அனுமன்), known also as ‘Anjaneya’ (son of Anjana) or Maruti , is one of the most popular concepts of devotees of God (bhakti) (devotion to God) in Hinduism and one of the most important personalities in the Indian epic , the Ramayana . His most famous feat, as described in the Hindu epic scripture the Ramayana , was leading a monkey army to fight the demon King Ravana .
Hanuman was born to Anjana , a female vanara in the Brahmagiri hills near Trimbakeshwar , Maharashtra. According to the legend, Anjana was an apsara or a celestial being, named ‘Punjikasthala’, who, due to a curse, was born on the earth as a female vanara. The curse was to be removed upon her giving birth to an incarnation of Lord Shiva It is also said that Hanuman was born on Anjaneya Hill, in Hampi , Karnataka, near the Risyamukha mountain on the banks of the Pampa, where Sugreeva and Sri Rama met. There is a temple that marks the spot.
Along with Kesari, her husband, Anjana performed intense prayers to Shiva to beget Him as her Child. Pleased with their devotion, Shiva granted them the boon they sought. The Valmiki Ramayana, (Yuddha Kanda) states that Kesari is the son of Brihaspati and that Kesari also fought on Rama’s side in the war against Ravana.
Different stories are told explaining Hanuman’s birth. One is that at the time that Anjana was worshipping Lord Shiva, elsewhere, Dashrath, the king of Ayodhya , was performing the Putrakama Yagna in order to have children. As a result, he received some sacred pudding, payasam , to be shared by his three wives, leading to the births of Rama, Lakshmana,Bharata, and Sharughna . By divine ordinance, a kite snatched a fragment of that pudding and dropped it while flying over the forest where Anjana was engaged in worship. Vayu,the Hindudeity of the wind, delivered the falling pudding to the outstretched hands of Anjana, who consumed it. Hanuman was born to her as a result.
Being Anjana’s son, Hanuman is also called Anjaneya (pronounced Aanjanèya), which literally means “arising from Anjani”.
Sri Aurobindo states that “vanara” does not refer to “monkey”: “Prajapati manifests as Vishnu Upendra incarnate in the animal or Pashu in whom the four Manus have already manifested themselves, and the first human creature who appears is, in this Kalpa, the Vanara, not the animal Ape, but man with the Ape nature”, i.e. primitive man such as Homo erectus.
Hanuman, in one interpretation, is also considered as the incarnation of Shivaor reflection of Shiva. Others, such as followers of Dvaitaconsider Hanuman to be the son of Vayuor a manifestation of Vayu, the god of wind. When Ravana tried to enter the Himalayas (the abode of Shiva) Nandi stopped him and Ravana called Nandi a monkey. Nandi in return cursed Ravana that monkeys would help destroy him. Shiva, to give respect to His devotee, took the form of Hanuman.
References to Hanuman in classical literature could be found as early as those of 5th to 1st century BC in Panini’s Astadhyayi, Abhiseka Nataka, Pratima Nataka, and Raghuvamsa (Kalidasa).
As a child, assuming the sunto be a ripe mango, he once took flight to catch hold of it to eat. Indra, the king of devasobserved this and therefore threw the Vajra(thunderbolt) at Hanuman, which struck his jaw. He fell back down to the earth and became unconscious. Upset, Vayu went into seclusion, taking the atmospherewith him. As living beings began to be asphyxiated, Indra withdrew the effect of his thunderbolt, and the devas revived Hanuman and blessed him with multiple boons. A permanent mark was left on his chin (hanuh in Sanskrit) explaining his name.
On ascertaining Surya, the Hindu deity of the sun, to be an all-knowing teacher, Hanuman raised his body into an orbit around the sun and requested that Surya accept him as a student. Surya refused, claiming that as he always had to be on the move in his chariot, it would be impossible for Hanuman to learn effectively. Undeterred by Surya’s refusal, Hanuman enlarged his body, placed one leg on the eastern ranges and the other on the western ranges, and with his face turned toward the sun made his request again. Pleased by his persistence, Surya accepted. Hanuman then moved (backwards, to remain facing Surya) continuously with his teacher, and learned all of the latter’s knowledge. When Hanuman then requested Surya to quote his “guru-dakshina” (teacher’s fee), the latter refused, saying that the pleasure of teaching one as dedicated as him was the fee in itself. Hanuman insisted, whereupon Surya asked him to help his (Surya’s) spiritual son Sugriva. Hanuman’s choice of Surya as his teacher is said to signify Surya as a Karma Saakshi, an eternal witness of all deeds. Hanuman was mischievous in his childhood, and sometimes teased the meditating sages in the forests by snatching their personal belongings and by disturbing their well-arranged articles of worship. Finding his antics unbearable, but realizing that Hanuman was but a child, (albeit invincible), the sages placed a mild curse on him by which he became unable to remember his own ability unless reminded by another person. It is hypothesised that without this curse, the entire course of the Ramayana war might have been different, for he demonstrated phenomenal abilities during the war. The curse is highlighted in Kishkindha Kanda and Sundara Kanda whenjambavantha reminds Hanuman of his abilities and encourages him to go and find Sita.
The specific verse that is recited by Jambavantha is :
पवन तनय ब्ल पवन समाना बुद्धि विवेक विज्ञान निधाना | कवन् सो काज कठिन जग माही जो नहि होय तात तुम्ह पाहीं ||
You are as powerful as the wind (Hanumanji was the son of Pawan, God of wind);
You are intelligent, illustrious & an inventor.
There is nothing in this world that’s too difficult for you;
Whenever stuck, you are the one who can help.
The Sundara Kanda, the fifth book in the Ramayana, focuses mainly on the adventures of Hanuman and the story is as follows.
Hanuman meets Rama during the latter’s 14-year exile in the forest. With his brother Lakshmana, Rama is searching for his wife Sita who had been abducted by Ravana. Their search brings them to the vicinity of the mountain Rishyamukha, where Sugriva, along with his followers and friends, are in hiding from his elder brother Vali, with whom he had quarrelled over a mistake.
Having seen Rama and Lakshmana, Sugriva sends Hanuman to ascertain their identities. Hanuman approaches the two brothers in the guise of a brahmin. His first words to them are such that Rama says to Lakshmana that none could speak the way the brahmin did unless he or she had mastered the Vedas. He notes that there is no defect in the brahmin’s countenance, eyes, forehead, brows, or any limb. He points out to Lakshmana that his accent is captivating, adding that even an enemy with sword drawn would be moved. He praises the disguised Hanuman further, saying that sure success awaited the king whose emissaries were as accomplished as he was.
When Rama introduces himself, Hanuman reveals his own identity and falls prostrate before Rama, who embraces him warmly. Thereafter, Hanuman’s life becomes interwoven with that of Rama. Hanuman then brings about a friendship and alliance between Rama and Sugriva; Rama helps Sugriva regain his honour and makes him king of Kishkindha. Sugriva and his vanaras, most notably Hanuman, help Rama defeat Ravana and reunite with Sita.
In their search for Sita, a group of Vanaras reaches the southern seashore. Upon encountering the vast ocean, every vanara begins to lament his inability to jump across the water. Hanuman too is saddened at the possible failure of his mission, until the other vanaras and the wise bear Jambavantha beginto extol his virtues. Hanuman then recollects his own powers, enlarges his body, and flies across the ocean. On his way, he encounters a mountain that rises from the sea, proclaims that it owed his father a debt, and asks him to rest a while before proceeding. Not wanting to waste any time, Hanuman thanks the mountain and carries on. He then encounters a sea-monster, Surasa, who challenges him to enter her mouth. When Hanuman outwits her, she admits that her challenge was merely a test of his courage. After killing Simhika, a rakshasa, he reaches Lanka.
Hanuman reaches Lanka and marvells at its beauty. He also regrets that it might be destroyed if Rama does battle with Ravana. After he finds Sita sitting depressed in captivity in a garden, Hanuman reveals his identity to her, reassures her that Rama has been looking for her, and uplifts her spirits. He offers to carry her back to Rama; but she refuses his offer, saying it would be an insult to Rama as his honour is at stake. After meeting Sita, Hanuman begins to wreak havoc, gradually destroying the palaces and properties of Lanka. He kills many rakshasas, including Jambumalli and Akshaa. To subdue him, Ravana’s son Indrajituses the Brahmastra. Though immune to the effects of this weapon Hanuman, out of respect to Brahma, allows himself be bound. Deciding to use the opportunity to meet Ravana, and to assess the strength of Ravana’s hordes, Hanuman allows the rakshasa warriors to parade him through the streets. He conveys Rama’s message of warning and demands the safe return of Sita. He also informs Ravana that Rama would be willing to forgive him if he returns Sita honourably. Enraged, Ravana orders Hanuman’s execution, whereupon Ravana’s brother Vibheeshana intervenes, pointing out that it is against the rules of engagement to kill a messenger. Ravana then orders that Hanuman’s tail be lit afire. As Ravana’s forces attempted to wrap cloth around his tail, Hanuman begins to lengthen it. After frustrating them for a while, he allows it to burn, then escapes from his captors, and with his tail on fire he burns down large parts of Lanka. After extinguishing his flaming tail in the sea, he returns to Rama.
Lifting a mountain
When Lakshmana is severely wounded by Indrajit during the war against Ravana, Hanuman is sent to fetch the Sanjivani, a powerful life-restoring herb from the Dronagiri mountain in the Himalayas, to revive him. Ravana realises that if Lakshmana dies, a distraught Rama would probably give up, and so has his uncle Kalnaimi tempt Hanuman away with luxury. Hanuman is tipped off by a crocodile (actually a celestial being under a curse) and kills Kalnaimi. When he is unable to find the specific herb before nightfall, Hanuman takes the entire Dronagiri mountain to the battlefield in Lanka, thus helping others find the herb to revive Lakshmana. An emotional Rama hugs Hanuman, declaring him as dear to him as his own beloved brother Bharat.
The Patala incident
In another incident during the war (which brought about Hanuman’s Panchamukha form), Rama and Lakshmana are captured by the rakshas, Mahiravana (and his brother Ahiravana), a powerful practitioner of black magic and the dark arts, who holds them captive in his palace in Patalpuri or Patala (the nether world). Mahiravan keeps them as offerings to his deity. Searching for them, Hanuman reaches Patala whose gates are guarded by a young creature called Makardhwaja (known also as Makar-Dhwaja or Magar Dhwaja), who is part reptile and part Vanara.
The story of Makardhwaja’s birth is said to be that when Hanuman had extinguished his burning tail in the ocean, a drop of his sweat had fallen into the waters and eventually become Makardhwaja, who perceives Hanuman as his father. When Hanuman introduces himself to Makardhwaja, the latter asks his blessings, but fights him to fulfill the task of guarding the gate. Hanuman defeats and imprisons him to gain entry.
Upon entering Patala, Hanuman discovers that to kill Mahiravana, he must simutaneously extinguish five lamps burning in different directions. Hanuman assumes the Panchamukha or five-faced form of Sri Varaha facing north, Sri Narasimha facing south, Sri Garuda facing west, Sri Hayagriva facing the sky and his own facing the east, and blows out the lamps. Hanuman then rescues Rama and Lakshmana. Afterwards, Rama asks Hanuman to crown Makardhwaja king of Patalpuri.
When the war ends, Rama’s 14-year exile has almost elapsed. Rama then remembers Bharata’s vow to immolate himself if Rama does not return to rule Ayodhya immediately, on completion of the stipulated period. Realising that it would be a little later than the last day of the 14 years when he would reach Ayodhya, Rama is anxious to prevent Bharata from giving up his life. Hanuman therefore flies to Ayodhya to inform Bharata that Rama is on his way home.
Shortly after he is crowned Emperor upon his return to Ayodhya, Rama decides to ceremoniously reward all his well-wishers. At a grand ceremony in his court, all his friends and allies take turns being honoured at the throne. Hanuman approaches without desiring a reward. Seeing Hanuman come up to him, an emotionally overwhelmed Rama embraces him warmly, declaring that he could never adequately honour or repay Hanuman for the help and services he received from the noble Vanara. Sita, however, insists that Hanuman deserved honour more than anyone else, and asks him to seek a gift. Upon Hanuman’s request, Sita gives him a necklace of precious stones adorning her neck. When he receives it, Hanuman immediately takes it apart, and peers into each stone. Taken aback, many of those present demand to know why he is destroying the precious gift. Hanuman answers that he was looking into the stones to make sure that Rama and Sita are in them, because if they are not, the necklace is of no value to him. At this, a few mock Hanuman, saying his reverence and love for Rama and Sita could not possibly be as deep as he implies. In response, Hanuman tears his chest open, and everyone is stunned to see Rama and Sita literally in his heart.
After the victory of Rama over Ravana, Hanuman went to the Himalayas to continue his worship of the Lord. There he scripted a version of the Ramayana on the Himalayan mountains using his nails, recording every detail of Rama’s deeds. When Maharishi Valmiki visited him to show him his own version of the Ramayana, he saw Hanuman’s version and became very disappointed.
When Hanuman asked Valmiki the cause of his sorrow, the sage said that his version, which he had created very laboriously, was no match for the splendour of Hanuman’s, and would therefore, go ignored. At this, Hanuman discarded his own version, which is called the Hanumad Ramayana.
Maharishi Valmiki was so taken aback that he said he would take another birth to sing the glory of Hanuman which he had understated in his version. Later, one tablet is said to have floated ashore during the period of Mahakavi Kalidasa, and hung at a public place to be deciphered by scholars. Kalidasa is said to have deciphered it and recognised that it was from the Hanumad Ramayana recorded by Hanuman in an extinct script, and considered himself very fortunate to see at least one pada of the stanza.
After the Ramayana war
After the war, and after reigning for several years, the time arrived for Rama to depart to his heavenly abode. Many of Rama’s entourage, including Sugriva, decided to depart with him. Hanuman, however, requested to remain on earth as long as Rama’s name was venerated by people. Sita accorded Hanuman that desire, and granted that his image would be installed at various public places, so he could listen to people chanting Rama’s name. He is one of the Chiranjivins of Hinduism.
In the Mahabharata
Hanuman is also considered to be the brother of Bhima on grounds that both have the same father, Vayu. During the Pandavas‘ exile, he appears disguised as a weak and aged monkey to Bhima in order to subdue his arrogance. Bhima enters a field where Hanuman is lying with his tail blocking the way. Bhima, unaware of his identity, tells him to remove it. In return, Hanuman tells him to remove it himself. Bhima tries this, but is unable to do it despite his great strength and therefore inquires into Hanuman’s identity, which is then revealed. Upon Bhima’s request, Hanuman is also said to have enlarged himself and shown him the same size in which he had crossed the sea to go to Lanka, looking for Sita.
More significantly, during the great battle of Kurukshetra, Arjuna entered the battlefield with a flag displaying Hanuman on his chariot. The incident that led to this was an earlier encounter between Hanuman and Arjuna, wherein Hanuman appeared as a small talking monkey before Arjuna at Rameshwaram, where Sri Rama had built the great bridge to cross over to Lanka to rescue Sita. Upon Arjuna’s wondering aloud at Sri Rama’s taking the help of monkeys rather than building a bridge of arrows, Hanuman challenged him to build such a bridge capable of bearing him alone, and Arjuna, unaware of the monkey’s true identity, accepted. Hanuman then proceeded to repeatedly destroy the bridges made by Arjuna, who decided to take his own life. Vishnu then appeared before them both, chiding Arjuna for his vanity and Hanuman for making Arjuna feel incompetent. As an act of penitence, Hanuman decided to help Arjuna by stabilising and strengthening his chariot during the imminent great battle. Legend goes that Hanuman is one of the three people to have heard the Bhagwad Gita from Krishna, the other two being Arjuna and Sanjaya.
Presence in the present age
There have been numerous prophetswho claimed to have seen Hanuman in modern times, notably Madhvachary(13 Century A.D.), Tulsidas (16th century), Sri Ramdas Swami (17th century)and Raghavendra Swami (17th century), Swami Ramdas (20th century).
Others have also asserted his presence wherever the Ramayana is read (in Sanskrit, not translated):
यत्र यत्र रघुनाथ कीर्तनम् तत्र तत्र क्रित मस्तक अन्जलिं बष्पावरी परीपूर्ण लोचनम् मारुतिं नमश्च राक्षस अंतकम्।
That wherever the deeds of Sri Rama are sung,
At all such places does Hanuman cry tears of devotion and joy,
At all such places does his presence remove the fear of demons.
This can be found in many other texts like Vinaya Patrika by Tulsidas, Mahabharta by Ved Vyasa, Anand Ramayan and many others with slight variation in language/Sentence. Even the places where holy function of Ramayanpath is taking place, there is a special puja and space (or asan) reserved for Hanuman.
Temples and worship
Admired for his great strength, Hanuman was traditionally prayed to by wrestlers and boxers in India and South east Asia. There are numerous temples for Hanuman, and his images are usually installed at all temples where images of avataras of Vishnu are installed. Hanuman temples can be found in many places for the reason that the area and the surroundings are free from rakshasas and ‘evils’. This was a presentational ‘Varam’ to him by Rama and Sita. Hanuman idols are found on mountain roads because it is believed that he protects people from accidents.
Sankat Mochan Shri Hanuman Mandir, located in the Punjab town of Phillaur, is Asia’s tallest temple of lord Hanuman ji. The total height of temple is 121 feet and Hanuman ji statue’s height is 67 feet. This is a very famous temple in Punjab, people from all over the world come to see it.
Ragigudda Anjaneya temple is a Hanuman temple located in JP Nagar Bangalore. The temple is located on a hillock.
The Hanuman temple at Nerul, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India is situated inside SIES complex. The Hanuman idol is 33 feet (10 m) tall and is installed on a pedestal of height 12 feet (4 m), bringing the total height to 45 feet (14 m). In the picture shown, Hanuman has silver coverings (Silver Kavasam).
Similarly, a 32 feet (10 m) idol of Sri Anjaneyar was entrenched in 1989 at Nanganallur in chennai, India. The distinguished factor of the idol is that it was molded out of a single rock.
Other large Lord Hanuman idols:
A 30 foot Murti of Anjaneyaswamy, in Ponnur near Guntur in Andhra Pradesh.
An 85-foot (26 m) Karya Siddhi Hanuman murthi was installed at Carapichaima-Trinidad and Tobago, by Avadhoota Dattapeetham Pontiff Sri GanapathiSachchidananda. (Tallest in the Western hemisphere and second tallest in the world)
Sri Panchamukha Anjaneya Swami was the main deity of Sri Raghavendra Swami. The place where he meditated on this five-faced form of Hanuman is now known as Panchamukhi, wherein a temple for him has been built. There is also a shrine for Panchamukha Anjaneya Swami at Kumbakonam in Tamil Nadu, India. A 40 feet (12 m) tall monolithic green granite murti of Sri Panchamukha Hanuman has been installed in Thiruvallur, also in Tamil Nadu. This place was known as Rudravanam in olden times when many saints and seers had blessed this place with their presence. The Panchamukha Hanuman Ashram itself was established by a saint called Venkatesa Battar.
Hanuman assumed this form to kill Mahiravana, a powerful rakshasa black-magician and practitioner of the dark arts during the Ramayana war. Mahiravana had taken Lord Rama and Lakshmana captive, and the only way to kill him was to extinguish five lamps burning in different directions, all at the same instant. Hanuman assumed His Panchamukha form and accomplished the task, thus killing the rakshasa, and freeing Rama and Lakshmana.
This form of Hanuman is very popular, and is also known as Panchamukha Anjaneya and Panchamukhi Anjaneya. (Anjaneya, which means “son of Anjana”, is another name of Hanuman).
A 67 foot Murti of Lord Hanuman Ji has been installed at Sankat Mochan Shri Hanuman Mandir, located in the Punjab town of Phillaur.
A 40 foot Murti of Sri Panchamukha Hanuman has been installed at Tiruvallur, near Chennai, India.
A 36 foot Murti of Sri Panchamukha Hanuman has been installed at Panchavatee,Pondicherry, called as Viswaroopa Jayamangala Panchamukha Sri Anjaaneyaswamy.
A 32 foot Murti of Adhivyadihara Sri Bhaktha Anjaneyaswamy,Nanganallur,Chennai which is molded out of a single rock.
A 3 foot Murti of Sri Panchmukha Hanuman has been installed at OKapi farm 15.7 kms west of Lusaka Zambia from New Mumba Road. While the mandir is under construction, daily puja is offered in the mornings and evenings.
Every Face of Sri Panchamukha Hanuman has significance —
- Sri Hanuman faces east. He grants purity of mind and success.
- The Narasimha faces south. He grants victory and fearlessness.
- The west facing Garuda removes black magic and poisons.
- The north facing Varaha, showers prosperity, wealth.
- The Hayagriva mukha faces the Sky. But since we cannot see it, it is usually tilted and shown above Hanuman’s face. Hayagriva gives Knowledge and good children.
Relation with Shani
In the Hindu faith, Hanuman and Ganesha are two gods not afflicted by Shani. There is also a belief that all the planets are under the control of Hanuman’s tail. Whoever worships Hanuman is granted fortitude and strength.
In the Ramayana,Hanuman is said to have rescued Shani, that is, the planet Saturn, from the clutches of Ravana. In gratitude, Shani promised Hanuman that those who prayed to him (Hanuman) would be rescued from the painful effects of Saturn, which in Hindu astrology, is said to produce malefic effects on one’s life when one is afflicted “negatively” with Saturn.
Another version of the encounter between Lord Hanuman and Shani Bhagavan is that the latter once climbed on to Lord Hanuman’s shoulder, implying that he (Hanuman) was coming under the effects of the influence of Shani. At this, Hanuman assumed a large size, and Shani was caught painfully between Hanuman’s shoulders and the ceiling of the room they were in. As the pain was unbearable, Shani requested Hanuman to release him, promising that if a person prayed to Hanuman, he (Shani) would moderate the malefic effects of his influence on that person; following this, Hanuman released Shani.
One more version of the story behind why Lord Shani stays away from those who remember the Lord Ram’s name. Once Lord Hanuman was sitting silently absorbed in deep meditation of Lord Rama. Lord Shani passed by and he felt to tease Hanuman. He started teasing Hanuman by pulling his tail, and pinching. Hanuman warned him to go away as he is his Guru’s (Lord Sun) son, and so he respects him. When Shani did not hear, then Hanuman started to give him a good thrashing. In the end, Shani pleaded to leave him and Hanuman took a promise from him that Shani will never ever go near a devotee who is meditating on Lord Rama.
There is a spiritual interpretation of the relation between Lord Hanuman and Lord Shani. The former is said to be a symbol of selflessness, while the latter is symbolic of ego and pride. Thus, to counter the karma borne out of selfish action, one must be humble like Lord Hanuman. This is particularly true for those who are said to be experiencing the evil effects of “elnati shani” (in tamil) – a period of about seven and half years when Saturn (Lord Shani) is supposed to afflict the sign in which “planet,” the moon is placed in the natal chart of a person.
INDIAN FOLK ART BIBLIOGRAPHY (work in progress)
Abbot,J. INDIAN RITUAL AND BELIEF: THE KEYS OF POWER, 1932 New Dehli
Abraham, TM HANDICRAFTS IN INDIA, New Dheli 1964
Adams, Barbara S. TRADITIONAL BHUTANESE TEXTILES, Bangkok 1994.
Agrawal D.P. THE COPPER BRONZE AGE IN INDIA, New Dheli 1971.
Agrawala, Prithvi K. EARLY INDIAN BRONZES, Varanasi 1977
Agrawala R.C. UNPUBLISHED SCULPTURES AND TERRACOTTAS IN THE NATIONAL MUSEUM, NEW DEHLI AND SOME ALLIED PROBLEMS, 1967.
Agrawala, R.C. HUMAN FIGURINES ON POTTERY HANDLES FR
OM INDIA AND ALLIED PROBLEMS, 1970
Agrawala V.S. THE RELIGIOUS SIGNIFICANCE OF THE GUPTA TERRACOTTAS FROM RANG MAHAL, Lalit Kala 1960
Agrawala V.S. INDIAN ART Varanasi 1965
Agrawala V.S. ANCIENT FOLK CULTS, Varanasi 1970
Agrawala V.S. MATHURA TERRACOTTAS, Varanasi 1936
Agrawala V.S. TERRACOTTA FIGURINES OF AHICHHCATRA, dISTRICT BAREILLY, Varanasi 1985
Ahmad, Ashfaq PHULKARI Lahaur 1991
Ahmad, Khwaja Muhammad WESTERN CHALUKYAN ORNAMENTS NOW PRESERVED IN HYDERABAD MUSEUM, Hyderabad, 1949.
Ahuja, D.R. FOLKLORE OF RAJASTHAN, New Dheki, National Book Trust, 1980
Akiyama, Terufumi ed MRIGA: ANIMAL IN INDIAN ART, Tokyo. yomiuri Shimbun and Japan Association of Art Museums 1988.
Alkazi, Roshen ANCIENT INDIAN COSTUME, New Dheli: Art Heritage 1983.
All Indian Co-operative Union. SURVEY OF INDIAN HANDIKRAFTS: REPORT ON THE MARKETING OF HANIKRAFTS. Nre Dheli: All India Handikrafts Board Ministry of Industry, Governament of India 1955.
All Indian Co-operative Union INDIAN PRINTED TEXTILES. New Dheli: All Indian Handicrafts Board.
Allchin, F.R. APOTTERY GROUP FROM AYUN, CHITRAL, Bullettin of the school of Oriental and African Studies 1970.
Allchin F.R. and B. THE RISE OF CIVILIZATION IN INDIA AND PAKISTAN. Cambridge University Press 1988
Allemagne, Henry-Rene LA TOILE IMPRIMéE ET LES INDIENNES DE TRAITE Paris: Grund 1942
Allen, B.C. MONOGRAPH ON THE SILK CLOTHS OF ASSAM, Calcutta 1899
Altekar A.S. REPORT ON KUMRAHAR EXCAVATIONS 1951-55 Patna: K.P. Jayaswal Research Institute 1959.
Al-Talib F. THE SPLENDOR OF INDIAN SILK, New Dheli
Ambalal Amit KRISHNA AS SHRINATHJI-RAJASTHANI PAINTINGS FROM NATHADWARA. Ahmedabad Mapin Publ. 1987
Ames, Frank THE KASHMIR SHAWL AND ITS INDO-FRENCH INFLUENCE. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Antique Collector’s Club 1986.
Anaud Mulk Raj MADHUBANI PAINTING, New Dheli, Publications Division, Ministry of Information 1984.
Anaud, Mulk Raj IN PRAISE OF AIHOLE, BADAMI, MAHAKUTA, PATTADAKAL, Bombay, Marg Publications 1980.
Anavian, Rahim and George Anavian ROYAL PERSIAN AND KASHMIR BOCADES, Kyoto, Japan 1975.
Anderson, Franck J RICHES OF THE EARTH, ORNAMENTAL, PRECIOUS AND SEMIPRECIOUS STONES, New York Rutledge Press 1981.
Antagala MGHAL SILVER MAGNIFICENCE- MAGNIFICENCE DE L’ARGENTERIE MOGHOLE. Bruxelles: Antagala 1987.
Appasamy Jaya INDIAN PAINTINGS ON GLASS, New Dheli: Indian council for cultural relations 1980.
Appasamy, Jaya TANJAVUR PAINTING OF THE MARATHA PERIOD, New Dehli, Abhinav Publications 1980.
Archer, Mildred, PATNA PAINTING, London: David Marlowe Ltd for the Royal India Society, 1948.
Archer, Mildred INDIAN MINIATURES AND FOLK PAINTINGS FROM THE COLLECTION OF MILDRED AND W.G. ARCHER, London Arts Council of Great Britain 1967.
Archer, Mildred INDIAN PAINTINGS FROM COURT, TOWN AND VILLAGE, London, Arts Council of Great Britain 1970
Archer, Mildred COMPANY DRAWINGS IN THE INDIA OFFICE LIBRARY, London 1972.
Archer, Mildred, INDIAN POPULAR PAINTING IN THE INDIA OFFICE LIBRARY, London 1977.
Archer, Mildred INDIAN PAINTING FOR THE BRITISH 1770-1880, London, Oxford University Press 1955.
Archer, W.G. THE VERTICAL MAN: A STUDY IN PRIMITIVE INDIAN SCULPTURE, London 1947
Archer W.G. BAZAAR PAINTING OF CALCUTTA: THE STYLE OF KALIGHAT, London 1953.
Archer, W.G. INDIAN PAINTING London, Oxford University Press 1957
Archer W.G. INDIA AND MODERN ART, London 1959
Archer W.G. THE LOVES OF KRISHNA, London 1957, New York Grove Press 1960
Archer, W.G. KALIGHAT DRAWINGS FROM THE BASANT KUMAR BIRLA COLLECTION, FORMELY AJIT GHOSH COLLECTION. Bomabay 1962.
Archer, W.G. KALIGHAT PAINTINGS: A CATALOGUE, London 1971.
Archer W.G. INDIAN PAINTINGS FROM THE PUNJAB HILLS, London 1973.
Archer W.G. THE HILL OF FLUTES: LIFE AND POETRY IN TRIBAL INDIA: A PORTRAIT OF THE SANTALS, London George Allen & Unwin ltd 1974.
Archer W.G. SONGS FOR THE BRIDE: WEDDING RITES OF RURAL INDIA, New York, Columbia University Press 1985.
Aryan K.C. FOLK BRONZES OF NORTH WESTERN INDIA, Dehli Rekha Prakashan 1973.
Aryan K.C. THE LITTLE GODDESSES (MATRIKAS) New Dehli, Rekha Prakashan 1980.
Aryan, K.C. INDIAN FOLK BRONZES New Dehli, rEKHA pRAKASHAN 1991.
Aryan K.C. and Subhashini Aryan HANUMAN IN ART AND MYTHOLOGY, New Dehli, Rekha Prashan 1975.
Aryan K.C. and Subhashini Aryan RURAL ART OF THE WESTERN HIMALAYA, New Dheli 1985.
Aryan, Kamla INDIAN DECORATIVE DESIGNS, New Dehli, Rekha Prakashan 1983.
Aryan S. CATALOGUE OF INDIAN FOLK AND TRIBAL ART IN THE COLLECTION OF HOME OF FOLK ART AND NEGLECTED ART. Gurgaon, Haryana, Home of Folk Art.
Aryan Subhashini HIMACHAL EMROIDERY, New Delhi, Rekha Prakashan.
Aryan Subhashini CRAFTS OF HIMACHAL PRADESH, Ahmedabad, Mapin Publ. 1993.
Ashton Sir Leigh, ed THE ART OF INDIA AND PAKISTAN: A COMMEMORATICE CATALOGUE OF THE EXHIBITION HELD AT THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF ART 1947-8, London, Faber and Faber 1950.
Babb, Lawrence THE DIVINE HIERARCHY, New York, Columbia University Press 1975.
Baden-Powell B.H. A HANDBOOK OF THE MANUFACTURES AND ARTS OF THE PUNJAB, Lahore, Punjab Printing Co. 1872.
Bahadur K.P. CASTE, TRIBES AND CULTURE OF INDIA New Dehli, Ess Ess Publications, 1977-1985.
Bahadur, K.P. UTTAR PRADESH, New Dehli, Ess Ess Publications 1978.
Bahadur, Mutua and Y. Santabai TRIBAL ART OF MANIPUR, Imphal, Mutua Museum 1989.
Baishya, Pradin SMALL AND COTTAGE INDUSTRIES: A STUDY IN ASSAM, Dehli, Manas Publ. 1989.
Baker, George P. CALICO PAINTING AND PRINTING IN THE EAST INDIES IN THE XVII th and XVIII th CENTURIES, London, Edwin Arnold 1921.
Baloch, N.A. ed. THE TRADITIONAL ARTS AND CRAFTS OF HYDERABAD REGION, BEING THE PROCEDINGS OG THE SEMINAR HELD UNDER THE AUSPICIES OF THE MEHRAN ARTS COUNCIL, Hyderabad 1966.
Bancroft Edward EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE PHILOSOPHY OF PERMANENT COLOURS, London 1794.
Banerjee P. RAMA IN INDIAN LITERATURE, ART AND THOUGHT, Dheli, 1986.
Banerjee S.C. STUDY OF FOLK-CULTURE AND CALCUTTA UNIVERSITY, Calcutta 1974.
Banerij Arundhati EARLY INDIAN TERRACOTA ART 2000-300 bc (NORTHERN AND WESTERN INDIA), New Dheli, Harman Publ. House 1994.
Barbier Jean-Paul ART OF NAGALAND, Los Angeles Country Museum of Art, 1984.
Bareh Hamlet NAGALAND DISTRICT GAZETTEERS KOHIMA DISTRICT Governament of Nagaland 1970.
Bareh Hamlet THE HISTORY AND CULTURE OF THE KHASI PEOPLE, 1967.
Barkataki S. Tribes of Assam, New Dheli, National Book Trust, 1969.
Bernanrd Ncholas ARTS AND CRAFTS OF INDIA, London, Conran Octopus 1993.
Barnes Ruth INDIAN BLOCK-PRINTED COTTON FRAGMENTS IN THE KELSEY MUSEUM, THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, Kelsey Museum Studies, Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Press 1993.
Basham, A.L. HISTORY AND DOCTRINE OF THE AJIVIKAS, A VANISHED INDIAN RELIGION, London, Luzac 1951.
Basu, Ashish HANDICRAFTS OF WEST BENGAL: A RETROSPECT, Calcutta, 1990.
Beals, Alan R. GOPALPUR, A SOUTH INDIAN VILLAGE, New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston 1980
Becker, Vivienne, ANTIQUE AND TWENTIETH CENTURY JEWELLERY: A GUIDE FOR COLLECTORS, New York, 1982.
Beer, Alice Baldwin TRADE GOODS, A STUDY OF INDIAN CHINTZ IN THE COLLECTION OF THE COOPER-HEWITT MUSEUM. Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Inst. Press 1970.
Behura N.K. PAESANT POTTERS OF ORISSA: A SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY, New Dheli, Sterling Publ. 1978.
Berchem Horace van REHABILITATION DE LA POTERIE POPULAIRE TRADITIONELLE EN INDE. Geneva, Musee et Institute d’Ethnographie 1968.
Berinstain, Valerie PHULKARI: EMBROIDERED FLOWERS FROM PUNJAB, Paris, Association pour l’Etude et la Documentation des Textiles d’Asie, 1991.
Bernier, Francois TRAVELS IN THE MOGUL EMPIRE, London 1826.
Bernier, Ronald M. TEMPLE ARTS OF KERALA: A SOUTH INDIAN TRADITION, New Dheli 1982.
Berreman Gerald D. HINDUS OF THE HIMALAYAS: ETHNOLOGY AND CHANGE, Berkeley University of California Press 1972.
Bhagvat D.N. TRIBAL CULTURE OF THE CENTRAL PROVINCIES, Bombay 1942.
Bhagvat Durga AN OUTLINE OF INDIAN FLOKLORE, Bombay Popular Book depot, 1958.
Bhanawat Mahenda CATALOGUE OF BHARTIYA LOK-KALA MANDAL FOLKLORE MUSEUM Udaipur, Bhartiya Lok-kala Mandal 1976.
Bhanawat Mahenda MENHADI RANG RACHI: FOLKLORIC STUDY OF COLORFUL MYRTLE, Udaipur, Rajasthan 1976.
Bhardwaj, Souinder Mohan HINDU PLACES OF PILGRIMAGE IN INDIA: A STUDY IN CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY, Berkeley University of California, California Press 1973.
Bhatt, Gururaja STUDIES IN TULUVA HISTORY AND CULTURE, Karnataka, 1975.
Bhattacharya Asutosh CHHAU DANCE OF PURULIA, Calcutta 1972.
Bhattacharya Bholanath KRISHNA IN THE TRADITIONAL PAINTING OF BENGAL, Calcutta 1972.
Bhavnani Enakshi FOLK AND TRIBAL DESIGNS OF INDIA, Bombay 1974
Bhavnani Enakshi DECORATIVE DESIGNS ON STONE AND WOOD IN INDIA, Bombay 1978
Bhowmik K.L. TRIBAL INDIA: A PROFILE IN INDIAN ETHNOLOGY, Calcutta World Press 1971.
Biswas A. INDIAN COSUMES, New Dheli, Publications Divisions, 1985.
Biswas S.S. TERRACOTTA ART OF BENGALA, 1982.
Blackman Olive SHADOW PUPPETS, New York, Harper 1960.
Bodding, P.O. FOLKLORE OF THE SANTAL PARGANAS, Cecil H. Bompas London 1909.
Borel, France THE SPLENDOR OF ETHNIC JEWELRY: FROM THE COLETTE AND JEAN-PIERRE GHYSELS COLLECTION, New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc 1994.
Bosch F.D.K. THE GOLDEN GERM: AN INTRODUCTION TO INDIAN SYMBOLISM, 1960.
Bose, Pradip Kumar TRADITIONAL CREAFT IN A CHANGING SOCIETY: POTTERS AND THEIR CRAFT IN GUJARAT, Surat Centre for Social Studies, 1980.
Bourgeois, Jean Louis SPECTACULAR VERNACULAR: THE ADOBE TRADITION, New York, Aperture Foundation 1989.
Bower, Ursula Graham NAGA PATH OR DRUMS BEHIND THE HILL, London, John Murray, New York 1950.
Breeks, James Wilkinson, AN ACCOUNT OF THE PRIMITIVE TRIBES AND MONUMENTS OF THE NILGIRIS, London 1873.
Briggs George W. THE CHAMAS, Calcutta, Association press 1920.
Brij Bhushan, Jamila INDIAN JEWELLERY ORNAMENTS AND DECORATIVE DESIGNS, Bombay 1955.
Brij Bhushan, Jamila THE COSTUMES AND TEXTILES OF INDIA, Bombay 1958.
Brij Bhushan, Jamila Indian Metalware. Bombay 1961.
Brij Bhushan, Jamila MASTERPICIES OF INDIAN JEWELLERY, Bombay 1979.
Browning Henry BETEL CUTTERS FROM THE SAMUEL EILENBERG COLLECTION, New York, Thames and Hudson Inc. 1992.
Bruneul Francis JEWELLERY OF INDIA: FIVE THOUSAND YEARS OF TRADITION, New Dheli 1972.
Buhler Alfred IKAT, BATIK, PLANGI, RESERVEMUSTERUNGEN AUF GARN UND STOFF AUS VORDERASIEN, ZENTRALASIEN, SODOSTEUROPA UND NORDAFRIKA, Basel, 1972.
Buhler and Ebherhard Fisher CLAMP RESIST DYEING OF FABRICS: TOWARDS AN INTERPRETATION OF LARGE WOODEN PRINTING-BLOKS IN THE CALICO MUSEUM OF TEXTILES, AHMEDABAD, Amhedabad, Calico Museum of Textiles, 1977.
Burnard Joyce CHINTS AND COTTON: INDIA’S TEXTILE GIFT TO THE WORLD, 1994.
Burns L. A MONOGRAPH ON GOLD AND SILVER WORK IN THE BOMBAY PRESIDENCY, Bombay, 1904.
Bury Shirley JEWELLERY GALLERY: SUMMARY CATALOGUE, London Victoria and Albert Museum 1982.
Bussagli Mario 5000 YEARS OF THE ART OF INDIA, New York.
Calico Museum BLOCK PRINTS: CALICO MUSEUM, INDIA, Ahmedabad, Calico Museum 1951.
Calico Museum A SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY OF INDIAN TEXTILES, John Irwin ed Ahmedabad, 1975.
Calico Museum TREASURES OF INDIAN TEXTILES 1992.
Carrin-Bouez, Marine LE FLEUR ET L’OS: SYMBOLISME ET RITUEL CHEZ LES SANTAL, Paris Editions de l’Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Science Sociales 1986.
Casal, J.M. AND G. SITE URBAIN ET SITES FUNERAIRES DES ENVIRONS DE PONDICHERY: VIRAMPATNAM, MOUTTRAPALEON, SOUTTOUKERNY, Paris, Press Univ. de France 1956.
Castelli, A. VIAGGIO CURIOSO NEL MONDO DELLE CARTE, Milan Fratelli Fabbri 1975.
Chakrabarti, J. KALLIGHAT PAINTING IN THE COLLECTION OF NANDAM MUSEUM, 1986.
Chandra Moti COSTUMES, TEXTILES, COSMETICS AND COIFFURE IN ANCIENT AND MEDIAEVAL INDIA, Dehli 1973.
Chandra Moti JAIN MINIATURE PAINTINGS FROM WESTERN INDIA, 1974.
Chandra Moti INDIAN IVORIES, New Dheli 1977.
Chandra Moti TRADE AND TRADE ROUTES IN ANCIENT INDIA, New Dheli 1977.
Chatterjee Ram CREATIVE CRAFTS OF INDIA 1989, THE MAGIC OF MAKING, Bombay 1989.
Chatterji, Tapan Mohan ALPONA: RITUAL DECORATION IN BENGAL, Bombay 1948.
Chattopadhyaya K. CARPETS AND FLOOR COVERING OF INDIA, Bombay, 1969.
Chattopadhyaya K. INDIAN EMROIDERY, New Dehli 1977.
Chattopadhyaya K. TRIBALISM IN INDIA, New Dheli 1978.
Chattopadhyaya K. INDIA’S CRAFT TRADITION, New
Chattopadhyaya K. HANDICRAFTS OF INDIA, New Dheli 1985
Chaudhuri K.N. THE TRADING WORLD OF ASIA AND THE ENGLISH EAST INDIA COMPANY 1660-1760 Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press 1978.
Chaudhuri K.N. TRADE AND CIVILIZATION IN THE INDIAN OCEAN: AN ECONOMIC HISTORY FROM THE RISE OF ISLAM TO 1750. Cambridge University Press 1985.
Chaudhuri S. AN EXHIBITION OF FOLK AND TRIBAL IMAGES OF INDIA. New Dheli 1970.
Chauhan, B.R. A RAJASTHAN VILLAGE, New Dheli. 1967.
Chib, S.S. CASTE, TRIBES AND CULTURE OF NORTH EASTERN INDIA, New Dheli 1984.
Chopra P.N. RELIGIONS AND COMMUNITIES OF INDIA, New Dheli 1982.
Choudhury M.M. TRIBES OF ASSAM PLAINS: A PROFILE, 1980.
Chowdhury J.N. ARUNACHAL PANORAMA: A STUDY A PROFILE, 1982.
Cole, H.H. CATALOGUE PF THE OBJECTS OF INDIAN ART EXHIBITED IN THE SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM, London, 1874.
Collin, E.W. REPORT ON THE EXISTING ARTS AND INDUSTRIES IN BENGAL, Calcutta 1892.
Contactor, Meher THE SHADOW PUPPETS OF INDIA, 1984.
Cousine Francoise TISSUS IMPRIMES DU RAJASTHAN, Paris 1986.
Crill, Rosemary CARPETS – THE INDIAN HERITAGE: COURT LIFE AND ARTS UNDER MUGHAL RULE, 1982.
Crill, Rosemary HATS FROM INDIA, London Victoria and Albert Museum 1985.
Crooke W: THE POPULAR RELIGION AND FOLKLORE OF NORTHERN INDIA, London 1986.
Crooke W: THE TRIBES AND CASTES OF THE NORTH WESTERN INDIA, Calcutta 1896.
Czuma S. INDIAN ART FROM THE GEORGE P. BICKFORD COLLECTION, Cleveland Museum of Art, 1975.
Czuma S. KUSHAN SCULPTURE: IMAGES FROM EARLY INDIA, Cleveland Museum of Art, 1975.
Dales G. EXCAVATIONS AT MOHENJO DARO, PAKISTAN: THE POTTERY, Philadelphia University Museum University of Pennsylvania 1986.
Dalip D. ed TERRACOTTA, Madras 1981.
Dallapiccola Anna KULT UND ALLTAG (THE SACRED AND THE PROFANE: BELL METAL CASTING IN THE FOLK ART OF INDIA, 1984).
Dalmia, Y. THE PAINTED WORLD OF THE WARLIS: ART AND RITUAL OF THE WARLI TRIBES OF MAHARASHTRA, New Dheli 1988.
Dalton E. TRIBAL HISTORY OF EASTERN INDIA, Calcutta 1872.
Das Gupta C.C. PREHISTORIC TERRACOTTA FIGURINES OF SOUTH INDIA, Calcutta 1944.
Das Gupta C.C. ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF INDIAN CLAY SCULPTURE, Calcutta 1961.
Das Gupta WOOD CARVING OF EAST INDIA, Calcutta 1990.
Das Gupta THE TERRACOTTA OF HETAMPUR, Calcutta 1966.
Das Gupta Prodosh TEMPLE TERRACOTTA OF BENGAL, New Dheli Crafts Museum 1971.
Das A.K. TRIBAL ART AND CRAFT, Dheli 1979.
DAS S.R. FOLK RELIGION OF BENGAL, Calcutta 1953.
Das S.T. THE PEOPLE OF THE EASTERN HIMALAYAS, New Dheli 1978.
Das Sukla FABRIC ART: HERITAGE OF INDIA, New Dheli 1992.
Datta B. FOLK TOYS OF ASSAM, Assam 1986.
Datta S. FOLK PAINTINGS OF BENGAL, New Dheli 1993.
Davidson, J. Leroy ART OF THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT FROM LOSA ANGELES COLLECTION, Los Angeles UCLA art council 1968.
Desai, Chelna IKAT TEXTILES OF INDIA, San Francisco 1988.
Desai Devangana EROTIC SCULPTURE OF INDIA A SOCIO-CULURAL STUDY, New Dheli 1975.
Dev Bimal LUSHAI CUSTOMS AND CERMONIES, New Dheli 1983.
Dey, Mukul BIRBHUM TERRACOTTAS, New Dheli, Lalit Kala Akademi 1959.
Dhavalilkar, M.K. MATHURA ART IN THE BARODA MUSEUM, 1971.
Dhavalilkar, M.K. MASTERPIECES OF INDIAN TERRACOTTAS, Bombay 1977.
Diehl, Carl Gustav INSTRUMENT AND PURPOSE. STUDIES AND RITUALS IN SOUTH INDIA, Lund 1956.
Diehl, Carl Gustav EARLY INDIAN IMPRINTS, New York 1964.
Direction des Musees de France: DIEUX DE L’INDE DU SUD DANS L’IMAGERIE POPULAIRE, Paris 1982.
Dobbs W.E.J. A MONOGRAPH ON IRON AND STEEL WORK IN THE UNITED PROVINCES OF AGRA AND OUDH, 1907.
Dongerkery, Kamala S. THE INDIAN SARI, New Dheli, 1951.
Dongerkery, Kamala S. JEWELRY AND PERSONAL ADORNMENT IN INDIA, New Dheli 1970.
Doris Wiener Gallery, New York, INDIAN MINIATURE PAINTINGS, TENTH ANNUAL EXHIBITION, New York 1974.
Doshi Saryu Masterpieces of Jain Painting, Bombay 1985.
Doshi Saryu TRIBAL INDIA: ANCESTORS, GODS AND SPIRITS, Calcutta 1992.
Du Bois Ron THE AIYANAR HORSE IN Ceramic Monthly 1982
Dutt g.S. CATALOGUE OF FOLK ARTS, INDIAN SOCIETY OF ORIANTAL ART, Calcutta 1932.
Dutt Gurusaday FOLK ARTS AND CRAFTS OF BENGALA: THE COLLECTED PAPERS, Calcutta 1990.
Dutta, Devayani Mitra A CATALOGUE ON PULLKARI TEXTILES IN THE COLLECTION OF THE INDIAN MUSEUM, Calcutta: The Museum 1985.
Dutta P.C. HANDICRAFTS OF ARUNACHAL PRADESH 1990.
Dutta Parul THE TANGSAS OF THE NAMCHIK AND TIRAP VALLEYS, 1969.
Dwivedi Vinod P. INDIAN IVORIES: A SURVEY OF INDIAN IVORY AND BONE CARVING FROM THE EARLIEST TO THE MODERN TIMES. New Dheli 1976.
Eliade Mircea MYTHS, DREAMS AND MYSTERIES, THE ENCOUNTER BETWEEN CONTEMPORARY AND ARCHAIC REALITIES, London 1960.
Eliade Mircea IMAGES AND SYMBOLS: STUDIES IN RELIGIOUS SYMBOLISM, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1991.
Elmore, W.T. DRAVIDIAN GODS IN MODERN HINDUISM, Linconl, Nebraska, University of Nebraska 1913.
Elson V.C. DOWRIES FROM KUTCH: A WOMEN’S FOLK ART TRADITION IN INDIA, Los Angeles; Museum of Cultural History UCLA 1979.
Elvehiem, Museum of Art, University of Wisconsin TWO FACES OF SOUTH ASIAN ART: TEXTILES FROM HELEN L.ALLEN TEXTILE COLLECTION: PAINTINGS FROM ERNEST C. AND JAN WATSON COLLECTION, Madison, WI: University of Wiscomsin 1984.
Elwin Verrier THE MURIA AND THEIR GHOTUL, Bombay, Oxford University Press 1947.
Elwin Verrier THE TRIBAL ART OF MIDDLE INDIA, London, Oxford University Press 1951.
Elwin Verrier THE RELIGION OF AN INDIAN TRIBE, Bombay, Oxford University Press 1955
Elwin Verrier NAGALAND Shillong, 1961.
Elwin Verrier MYTHS OF THE NORTH-EAST FRONTIER OF INDIA, Shillong, North east Frontier Agency 1968
Elwin Verrier THE ART OF THE NORT-EAST FRONTIER OF INDIA, sHILLONG 1969
Elwin Verrier TRIBAL MYTHS OF ORISSA, BOmbay, Oxford University Press, 1954
Elwin Verrier THE BAIGA, London 1939
Elwin Verrier THE NAGAS IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY, London 1969
Fairservis Walter THE ROOTS OF ANCIENT INDIA: THE ARCHEOLOGY OF EARLY INDIAN CIVILIZATION, Chicago University Press 1975
Festival of India Tokyo THE ART OF THE ADIVASI (INDIAN TRIBAL ART) Tohyo, The Japan Association of Art Museums 1988.
Fisher, RURAL CRAFTSMEN AND THEIR WORK: EQUIPMENT AND TECHIQUES IN THE MER VILLAGE OF RATADI IN SAURASHTRA, INDIA, Ahmedabad, National Inst. and Designe 1970.
Fisher MOGRA DEV, TRIBAL CROCODILLE GODS, WOODEN CROCODILLE IMAGES OF CHONDRI,GAMIT AND VASAVA, SOUTH GUJARAT, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 1971.
Francke, a.h. antiquities of indian tibet, cALCUTTA, 1914
Fraser, Douglas THE MANY FACES OF PRIMITIVE ART: A CRITICAL ANTHOLOGY, 1966.
Fuchs, Stephen THE ABORIGINAL TRIBES OF INDIA, New York: St. Martin’s Press 1977.
Fuchs, Stephen THE KORKUS OF THE VINDHYA HILLS, New Dehli 1988.
Gajjar Irene ANCIENT INDAN ART AND THE WEST, A STUDY OF PARALLELS, CONTINUITY AND SYMBOLISM FROM PROTOHISTORIC TO EARLY BUDDHIST TIMES, Bombay 1971.
Ganguly, Mano Mohan HANDBOOK OF THE SCULPTURES IN THE MUSEUM OF THE BANGIYA SAHITYA PARISHAD Calcutta 1922.
Gans-Ruedin INDIAN CARPETS, New York, Rizzoli International Publ. 1984
Gargi, Belwant FOLK THEATER OF INDIA, Calcutta 1991.
Ghose Benoy PRIMITIVE INDIAN ARCHITECTURE, Calcutta 1953
Ghurye G.S. THE SCHEDULED TRIBES OF INDIA 1980
Gillow J. TRADITIONAL INDIAN TEXTILES London 1991.
Gittinger, M. SPLENDID SYMBOLS: TEXTILES AND TRADITION IN INDONESIA Washington DC The Textile Museum 1979.
Glassie Henry THE SPIRIT OF FOLK ART: THE GIRARD COLLECTION AT THE MUSEUM OF INTERNATIONAL FOLK ART, New York, Harry N. Abrams, in association with the Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe 1989.
Goetz Hermann THE ART AND ARCHITECTURE OF BIKANER STATE Oxford 1950.
Goetz Hermann STUDIES IN THE HISTORY AND ART OF KASHMIR AND THE INDIAN HIMALAYAS 1969.
Goldwater Robert PRIMITIVISM IN MODERN ART, Cambridge 1986.
Gorrer Goffrey HIMALAYAN VILLAGE: AN ACCOUNT OF THE LEPCHAS OF SIKKIM, London 1938.
Goswami, Praphullladatta BALLADS AND TALES OF ASSAM: A STUDY OF T
HE FOLKLORE OF ASSAM, Gauhati, Assam, University of gauhati 1970.
Goswamy B.N. INDIAN COSTUMES IN THE COLLECTION OF THE CALICO MUSEUM OF TEXTILES, Ahmedabad: The Museum, Sarabhai Foundation 1993.
Grewal, N. THE NEEDLE LORE: TRADITIONAL EMROIDERIES OF KASHMIR, HIMACHAL PRADESH, PUNJAB, HARYANA, RAJASTHAN, Dheli Ajanta Publications 1988.
Grigson W. THE MARIA GONDS OF BASTAR London 1938.
Gross N. SHISHA EMBROIDERY: TRADITIONAL INDIAN MIRROR WORK WITH INSTRUCTIONS AND TRANSFER PATTERNS New York, Dover Publ. 1981.
Gupta P.L. GANGETIC VALLEY TERRACOTTA ART. Varanasi 1972.
Gurumurthy S. CERAMIC TRADITIONS IN SOUTH INDIA (DOWN TO 3000 A.D.) Madras, University of Madras 1981.
Hall, M. INDIAN TEXTILES FROM THE EMBROIRER’S GUILD COLLECTION London 1986.
Hallade, Madeleine THE GANDHARA STYLE AND THE EVOLUTION OF BUDDHIST ART, London 1968.
Hanchett, Suzanne COLOURED RICE: SYMBOLIC STRUCTURE IN HINDU FAMILY FESTIVALS, Dehli 1988.
Haque Z. TERRACOTTA DECORATIONS OF LATE MEDIOEVAL BENGAL: PORTRAYAL OF A SOCIETY Dacca 1980.
Haque Z. Gathana Jewellery of Bangladesh. Dhaka 1984.
Harris H. MONOGRAPH ON THE CARPET WEAVING INDUSTRY IN SOUTHERN INDIA, Madras 1908.
Hatanaka, Kokyo TEXTILE ARTS OF INDIA: KOKYO HATANAKA COLLECTION, Kioto Japan 1993.
Hitkari, S.S. PHULKARI:THE FOLK ART OF PUNJAB, New Dheli, Phulkari Publ. 1980.
Hitkari, S.S. GANESHA-STHAPANA: THE FOLK ART OF GUJARAT, New Dheli, 1981.
Hivale, Shamrao and Verrier Elwin. Songs of the forest: the folk Poetry of the Gonds, London 1935.
Hodson T.C. The Primitive Culture of India, London, The Royal Asiatic Society 1922.
Hogben C, Bazaar Painting of Calcutta, London, Victoria and Albert Museum, 1955.
Hungtington, Susan L. The Art of Ancient India: Buddhist, Hindu, Jain, New York, 1985.
Hutton, J.H. CASTE IN INDIA: ITS NATURE FUNCTION AND ORIGINS, Cambridge, England, The University Press 1946.
Hutton, J.H. THE SEME NAGAS London 1921.
Hutton, J.H. The Angami Nagas: Whit some notes on neighboring tribes. Bombay 1969.
Huyler, Sthepen P. VILLAGE INDIA. New York 1985.
Huyler, Stephen P. “FROM FROM MOTHER EARTH” FESTIVAL OF INDIA IN THE UNITED STATES 1985-1986 New York, 1985.
Huyler, Stephen P. “RURAL WALL PAINTINGS ON ORISSA: STUDY OF FOUR VILLAGE” Facets of Indian Art, London 1986.
Huyler, Stephen P. “TERRACOTTA TRADITIONS IN 19TH AND 20TH CENTURY INDIA” FROM INDIAN EARTH 4000 YEARS OF TERRACOTTA ART, Brooklyn, NY, 1986.
Inglis, Stephen A VILLAGE OF SOUTH INDIA: THE WORK OF THE VELAR, Madurai 1980.
Irwin, John, INDIAN EMBROIDERY, Victoria and Albert Museum, London 1951.
Irwin, John SHAWLS: A STUDY IN INDO-EUROPEAN INFLUENCES, Victoria and Albert Museum, London 1955.
Irwin, John “Indian Textiles in historical perspective” TEXTILE AND ORNAMENTS OF INDIA, New York, Museum of Modern Art, 1955.
Irwin, John The tree of life in Indian textiles” DIMENSIONS OF INDIAN ART: PUPUL JAYAKAR SEVENTY, Lokesh Chandra and Jyotindra Jain Delhi 1986.
Irwin, John “symbolism in early Indian art” ART HERITAGE.
Irwin John and Margaret Hall INDIAN AND PRINTED FABRICS Ahmedabad, Calico Museum of Textiles 1971.
Irwin John and Margaret Hall INDIAN EMBROIDERIES, Ahmedabad, Calico Textile Museum 1973.
Irwin John, P.R. Schwartz STUDIES IN INDO-EUROPEAN TEXTILE HISTORY, Ahmedabad, Calico Museum of Textiles, 1966.
Ivanov A.A. ORIENTAL JEWELLERY FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE SPECIAL TREASURY AND STATE HERMITAGE ORIENTAL DEPARTMENT, Moscow 1984.
Iwatate, Hiroko DESERT VILLAGE, LIFE AND CRAFTS, GUJARAT, RAJASTHAN, Tokyo, Yoshiba 1989.
Jacksonville Art Museum and University Gallery, University of Florida JAMINI ROY AND BENGALI FOLK ART, Florida 1971.
Jacobs Julian THE NAGAS: THE HILL PEOPLES OF NORTHEAST INDIA: SOCIETY, CULTURE AND THE COLONIAL ENCOUNTER, London, New York 1990.
Jain, Jyotindra, FOLK ART AND CULTURE OF GUJARAT: GUIDE TO THE COLLECTION OF THE SHREYAS FOLK MUSEUM OF GUJARAT, Amhedabad 1980.
Jain, Jyotindra THE MASTER WEAVES, FESTIVAL OF INDIA IN BRITAIN, ROYAL COLLEGE OF ART, Bombay 1982.
Jain, Jyoitindra INTRODUCTION TO EVERYDAY ARTS OF INDIA: SANSKRITI MUSEUM OF EVERYDAY ART, New Delhi 1984.
Jain Jyotindra PAINTED MYTHS OF CREATION: AND AND RITUAL OF AN INDIAN TRIBE, New Delhi 1984.
Jain Jyotindra UTENSILIS: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE UTENSILIS MUSEUM AHMEDABAD, Amhedabad 1984.
Jain Jyotindra MUSEUM OF INDIA: NATIONAL HANDICRAFTS AND HANDLOOMS MUSEUM, New Delhi 1989.
Jaitly Jaya THE CRAFT TRADITION OF INDIA, New Delhi 1990.
Jay, Edward J. A TRIBAL VILLAGE OF MIDDLE INDIA, Calcutta 1970.
Jayakar, Pupul THE EARTHEN DRUM: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE RITUAL ARTS OF RURAL INDIA, New Delhi: National Museum 1980.
Jayakar, Pupul THE EARTH MOTHER: LEGENDS, GODDESSES AND RITUAL ARTS OF INDIA, San Francisco 1990.
Jayaswal Vidula KUSHANA CLAY ART OF GANGA PLAINS: A CASE STUDY OF HUMAN FORMS FROM KHAIRADIH, Delhi 1991.
Jayaswal, Vidula and Kalyan Krishna AN ETHNO-ARCHEOLOGICAL VIEW OF INDIAN TERRACOTTAS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE PRESENT AND PAST TERRACOTTA TRADITIONS OF GANGETIC PLAINS, Delhi 1986.
Jehangir Art Gallery, Bombay CREATIVE CRAFTS OF INDIA: THE MAGIC OF MAKING, Bombay 1989.
Jerath, Ashok FOLK ART DUGGAR New Delhi 1983.
Johnstone D.C. MONPGRAPH ON WOOLEN MANUFACTURES OF THE PUNJAB, Lahore 1886.
Joshi, O.P. PAINTED FOLKLORE AND FLOKLORE PAINTERS OF INDIA: A STUDY WITH REFERENCE TO RAJASTHAN, Delhi 1976.
Juliusson THE GONDS AND THEIR RELIGION, Stockholm, 1974.
Justin, Anstice THE NICOBARESE, Calcutta 1990.
Kahn Muhammad H. TERRACOTTA ORNAMENTATION IN MUSLIM ARCHITECTURE OF BENGAL, Dhaka 1988.
Kala, Satish Chandra TERRACOTTA FIGURINES FROM KAUSAMBI MAINLY IN THE COLLECTION OF THE MUNICIPAL MUSEUM, Allahabad, 1950.
Kaul S.K. TRIBAL ART AND HANDICRAFTS, Delhi 1979.
Khanna Sudarshan Dynamic Folk Toys, New Delhi 1983.
Kinsley David HINDU GODDESSES, VISION OF THE DIVINE FEMININE IN THE HINDU RELIGIOUS TRADITION, California 1986.
Knizkova Hana “The folk coloured drawing of the Kalighat style. From the Naprestek Museum collection” ANNALS OF THE NAPRESTEK MUSEUM, Prague 1964.
Knizkova Hana THE DRAWINGS OF THE KALIGHAT STYLE: SECULAR THEMES, Prague 1975.
Knizkova P. INDIAN GLAZED CERAMICS OF THE 19th AND EARLY 20th CENTURIES. Prague 1981.
Koppar D.H. TRIBAL ART OF DANGS, Baroda 1971.
Koppar D.H. FORGOTTEN ART OF INDIA, Baroda, 1989.
Kothari, Komal “The Shrines: an expression of social needs” GODS OF THE bYWAYS: WAYSIDE SHRINES OF RAJASTHAN, MADHYA PRADESH AND GUJARAT, Oxford, 1982.
Kramrisch Stella DRAVIDA AND KERALA IN THE ART OF TRAVANCORE, Ascona 1953.
Kramrisch Stella UNKNOWN INDIA: RITUAL ART IN TRIBE AND VILLAGE, Philadelphia, Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1968.
Kramrisch Stella THE HINDU TEMPLE, Calcutta 1946.
Kramrisch Stella EXPLORING INDIA’S SACRED ART: SELECTED WRITINGS OF STELLA KRAMRISCH, Barbara Stoler Miller Ed., Philadelphia 1983.
Kramrisch Stella “The Ritual Arts of India” ADITI: THE LIVING ARTS OF INDIA, Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Inst. Press 1985.
Kramrisch Stella THE ART OF INDIA, Calcutta 1946.
Krasa, M. ORISSA FOLK-PAINTINGS, Prague 1967.
Krishnan M.V. CIRE PERDUE IN INDIA, New Delhi 1976.
Kumar, Pramod FOLK ICONS AND RITUALS IN TRIBAL LIFE, New Delhi 1984.
Lal Lakshmi THE WARLIS:TRIBAL PAINTINGS AND LEGENDS, Bombay 1985.
Larsen, Jack Lenor THE DYERS ART: IKAT, BATIK, PLANGI, New York 1976.
Lerner, Martin THE FLAME AND THE LOTUS: INDIAN AND SOUTHEAST ASIAN ART FROM THE KRONS COLLECTIONS, New York 1984.
Levi-Strauss Monique THE CASHMERE SHAWL, New York 1988.
Lewis, A.B. BLOCK PRINTS FROM INDIA FOR TEXTILES, Chicago 1924.
Leyden, Rudolf von and M. Dummet GANJIFA: THE PLAYING CARDS OF INDIA, A GENERAL SURVEY WITH A CATALOGUE OF THE VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM COLLECTION, London, 1982.
Lohia, Bajranglal RAJASTHAN KI JATIYA (HINDI: THE CLANS/TRIBES OF RAJASTHAN) Calcutta 1954.
Lynch, B. “The Near East, India” IVORY, A HISTORY AND COLLECTOR’S GUIDE, London 1987.
Lynton, Linda THE SARI:STYLES, PATTERNS, HISTORY, TECHIQUES, New York 1995.
Mahapatra, Sitakant MODERNIZATION AND RITUAL: IDENTITY AND CHANGE IN SANTAL SOCIETY, Calcutta 1986.
Mahapatra, Sitakant TRIBAL WALL PAINTINGS OF ORISSA, Orissa 1991.
Maity, P.K. POPULAR CULTS, LEGENDS, AND STORIES IN ANCIENT BENGAL, 1971.
Maity, P.K. FOLK-RITUALS OF EASTERN INDIA, New Delhi 1988.
Malkin, Michael R. TRADITIONAL AND FOLK PUPPETS OF THE WORLD, South Brunswick, 1977.
Manchada, Jaishree TRADITIONAL FABRICS OF INDIA, New Delhi 1978.
Manchada Omi A STUDY OF THE HARAPPAN POTTERY, Delhi 1972.
Manohar, Aashi TRIBAL ARTS AND CRAFTS OF MADHYA PRADESH, Ahmedabad 1996.
Marglin, F.A. WIVES OF THE GOD-KING: THE RITUALS OF THE DEVADASIS OF PURI, Delhi 1985.
Markevitch, Elizabeth INDIAN JEWELLERY (BIJOUX INDIENS), Switzerland 1987.
Mate, M.S. TEMPLES AND LEGENDS OF MAHARASHTRA, Bombay 1962.
Mate M.S. DECCAN WOODWORK, Poona 1967.
Maury, Curt FOLK ORIGINS OF INDIAN ART, New York 1969.
Mayer, Adrian CASTE AND KINSHIP IN CENTRAL INDIA, Berkeley 1960.
Meerwarth A.M. THE ANDAMANESE, NICO
BARESE AND HILL TRIBES OF ASSAM, Gauhati 1919.
Mehta, Rustam J. MASTERPIECES OF INDIAN TEXTILES, Bombay 1970.
Mehta Ushkant EXHIBITION OF FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS OF GUJARAT, Bombay 1971.
Michell George LIVING WOOD: SCULPTURAL TRADITIONS OF SOUTHERN INDIA, Bombay 1992.
Misra, Umesj Chandra TRIBAL PAINTINGS AND SCULPTURES, Delhi 1989.
Mitra, Sanat Kumar, FOLK LIFE AND LORE OF WEST BENGAL: AN ILLUSTRATED MONOGRAPH, Calcutta 1981.
Mittal ANDHRA PAINTINGS OF THE RAMAYANA, 1969.
Mittal, Jagdish INDIAN FOLK PAINTINGS: 15th TO 19th CENTURY FROM THE COLLECTION OF JAGDISH AND KAMLA MITTAL MUSEUM OF INDIA ART, HYDERABAD, New Delhi 1990.
Mohanty, B.C. PATA PAINTINGS OF ORISSA, New Delhi 1984.
Mohanty, B.C. IKAT FABRICS OF ORISSA AND ANDRHA PARADESH, Ahmedabad, Calico Museum of Textiles 1974.
Mohanty, B.C BLOCK PRINTING AND DYEING OF BAGRU, Rajasthan, Ahmedabad, 1983.
Mohanty, B.C NATURAL DYEING PROCESSES OF INDIA, Ahmedabad 1987.
Mookerjee, Ajit INDIAN PRIMITIVE ART, Calcutta 1959.
Mookerjee, Priya PATHAWAY ICONS: THE WAYSIDE ART OF INDIA, New York 1987.
Mookerji D.N. A MONOGRAPH ON GOLD AND SILVER WORK IN THE BENGAL PRESIDENCY, Calcutta 1905.
Morrel, Anne THE TECHNIQUES OF INDIAN EMROIDERY, London 1994.
Mukherjee, Meera FOLK METAL CRAFT OF EASTERN INDIA, New Delhi 1977.
Mukherjee S.C. THE TERRACOTTA OF ATPUR, Calcutta 1960.
Mukhopadhyay S. CATALOGUE OF EMBROIDERED TEXTILES FROM CUTCH AND KATHIAWAR IN THE INDIAN MUSEUM, Calcutta 1983.
Murphy John A TRETISE ON THE ART OF WEAVING, Glasgow 1827.
Murphy, Veronica and Roseamary Crill TIE-DYED TEXTILES OF INDIA: TRADITION AND TRADE, New York 1991.
Museum of Modern Art, Oxford GODS OF THE BYWAYS:WAYSIDE SHRINES OF RAJASTHAN, MADHYA PRADESH AND GUJARAT, Oxford 1982.
Naga Inst. of Culture THE ARTS AND CRAFTS OF NAGALAND, Kohima 1968.
Nagaswamy, R. ART AND CULTURE OF TAMIL NADU, Delhi 1980.
Naik, T.B. THE BHILS: A STUDY, Delhi 1956.
Neven, Armand NEW STUDIES IN INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN SCULPTURE, Eersel 1980.
Nicholson, Julia TRADITIONAL INDIAN ARTS OF GUJARAT: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE GUJARATI COLLECTION OF LEICESTERSHIRE MUSEUMS, ARTS AND RECORDS SERVICE, Leicester 1988.
Oliver Paul SHELTER, SIGNS AND SYMBOL. AN EXPLORATIVE WORK ON VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE. London 1975.
Oman, John Campbell CULTS, CUSTOMS AND SUPERSTITIONS OF INDIA, New York 1975.
Osumi Yamezo PRINTED COTONS OF ASIA: THE ROMANCE OF TRADE TEXTILES. Tokyo 1963.
Pal, Mrinal Kanti CATALOGUE OF FOLK ART IN THE ASUTOSH MUSEUM, Calcutta 1962.
Pal, Mrinal Kanti IVORY WORKS OF INDIA THROUGH THE AGES, New Delhi 1972.
Pal, Pratapaditya THE ARTS OF INDIA AND NEPAL, THE NASLI AND ALICE HEERAMANECK COLLECTION, New York 1966.
Pal, Pratapaditya BRONZES OF KASHMIR, New York 1975.
Pal, Pratapaditya THE IDEAL IMAGE: THE GUPTA SCULPTURAL TRADITION AND ITS INFLUENXES, New York 1978.
Pal, Pratapaditya ELEPHANTS AND IVORIES IN SOUTH ASIA, Los Angeles 1981.
Pal, Pratapaditya ICONS OF PIETY, IMAGES OF WHIMSY: ASIAN TERRA-COTTAS FROM THE WALTER-GROUNDS COLLECTION, Los Angeles 1987.
Pandey, B.P. BANARAS BROCADES: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONING, Varanasi 1981.
Pani, Jiwan LIVING DOLLS: STORY OF INDIAN PUPPETS, New Delhi 1986.
Pani, Jiwan WORLD OF OTHER FACES: INDIAN MASKS. New Delhi 1986.
Patna Museum TERRA-COTTA FIGURINES IN PATNA MUSEUM, Patna 1961.
Paulson, Joyce FROM RIVER BANKS AND SACRED PLACES: ANCIENT INDIAN TERRACOTTAS, Boston 1977.
Peebles, Merrily COURT AND VILLAGE: INDIA’S TEXTILE TRADITIONS, Santa Barbara 1981.
Perumal, A.N. FOLK ARTS OF THE TAMILS, Madras 1983.
Poster Amy G. FIGURES IN CLAY: TERRACOTTAS FROM ANCIENT INDIA, Brooklin, New York 1973.
Poster, Amy G. FROM INDIAN EARTH, 4000 YEARS OF TERRACOTTA ART, New York 1986.
Prakash, P. TERRACOTTA ANIMAL FIGURINES IN THE GANGA-YAMUNA VALLEY 600 BC TO 600 AD, Delhi 1985.
Rawson, P. THE ART OF TANTRA, London 1973.
Ray, S.K. THE RITUAL ART OF THE BRATAS OF BENGAL, Calcutta 1961.
Ridley, M. ORIENTAL ART, INDIA NEPAL AND TIBET FOR PLEASURE AND INVESTMENT, London 1970.
Roy, N. ART OF MANIPUR, Delhi 1979.
Roy, U.N. RURAL LIFE AND FOLK CULTURE IN ANCIENT INDIA: PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEMINAR HELD AT ALLAHABAD IN 1985, Allahabad 1988.
Rye O.S. TRADITIONAL POTTERY TECHNIQUES OF PAKISTAN: FIELD AND LABORATORY STUDIES, Washington 1976.
Sahay, S. INDIAN COSTUME, COIFFURE AND ORNAMENT, New Delhi 1975.
Sahoo, B. ARTS AND ARTISANS OF ORISSA, Bhubaneswar 1981.
Saksena, J. ART OF RAJASTHAN: HENNA AND FLOOR DECORATIONS, Delhi 1979.
Saksena, J. MANDANA, A FOLK ART OF RAJASTHAN, New Delhi 1985.
Saraf, D.N. ARTS AND CRAFTS, JAMMU AND KASMIR: LAND, PEOPLE, CULTURE, New Delhi 1987.
Sarkar, Benoy Kumar THE FOLK ELEMENT IN HINDU CULTURE, London 1917.
Sarkar, S.R. MASKS OF WEST BENGAL, Calcutta 1990.
Sarkar, S.R. “Masks and mask-dances of Malda: a study from anthropological standpoint” ASPECTS OF HISTORY AND CULTURE. ANANDA CHANDRA AGARWALA COMMEMORATION VOLUME, 1991.
sama Gautama FOLKLORE OF HIMACHAL PRADESH, New Delhi 1984.
Schoffel, Alan ARTS PRIMITIF DE L’ASIE DU SUD-EST: ASSAM, SUMATRA, BORNEO, PHILIPPINES, COLLECTION ALAIN SCHOFFEL, Meudon 1981.
Seiler-Baldinger, Annemarie CLASSIFICATION OF TEXTILE TECHIQUES, Ahmedabad 1979.
Sen Gupta Sankar STUDIES IN INDIAN FOLK CULTURE: FOLK SONGS, FOLK ARTS AND FOLK LITERATURE, Calcutta 1964.
Shah Haku VOTIVE TERRACOTTAS OF GUJARAT, Ahmedabad 1985.Shirali Aditi TEXTILE AND BAMBOO CRAFTS OF THE NORTH-EASTERN REGION, Ahmedabad 1983.
Silverstein, John WOVES WINDS: THE ART OF THE TEXTILES IN INDIA, Stratford 1981.
Singh, Mandanjeet HIMALAYAN ART: WALL-PAINTING AND SCULPTURE IN LADAKH, LAHAUL AND SPITI, THE SIWALIK RANGES, NEPAL, SIKKIM AND BHUTAN, London 1971.
Singh, Miam G. FESTIVALS, FAIRS, AND CUSTOMS OF HIMACHAL PRADESH, New Delhi 1992.
Sinha B.P. SEMINAR ON POTTERIES IN ANCIENT INDIA: PAPERS AND PROCEEDINGS, Patna 1969.
Sivaramamurti C. INDIAN BRONZES, SOUTH INDIAN BRONZES, Bombay 1962.
WORK IN PROGRESS …