Chachogi Fagli – Sharan Fagli शरन फागली (कोटलु) – Rumsu village Fagli -an iconographic comparison of the ritual masks in use

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

2008 – 2022

***

THE MASKING TRADITION IN FOLK & TRIBAL INDIA & HIMALAYA

no 23

Each society lives in the present but its roots are in the past and through the tradition the past is connected with the present.

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/mask-the-masking-tradition-in-tribal-india-and-himalaya/

***

Chachogi Fagli – Rumsu Fagli & Sharan Fagli

शरन फागली (कोटलु)

Himachal Pradesh

The recent research devoted to the ritual masks used during the Dhaugi धौगी village Fagli Festival was an opportunity for a first iconographic comparison with other masks, decorated with branches and leaves, used in the Malana Village -Harlala Mask Dance Festival and in the Fagli of Rumsu Village (Naggar Tehsil Kullu District).

The body and mask decorations with branches and leaves were, in synthesis, the ‘fil rouge’ of this first comparison, concerning three different territorial contexts of the Fagli.

Photo Credit Updating in progress – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence

The five large crowned wooden masks in use in the Fagli of Rumsu

characterized by an ocher background color, decorations of the crown and face of the mask in golden yellow, mustache and eyebrows in black, teeth in white,

constitute

the starting point

for a further comparison, in which in addition to the aforementioned (body) decoration, the (similar) color and shape of the masks also constitute a point of comparison.

Fagli of Rumsu Village Naggar Tehsil Kullu District Masks – Photo Credit Updating in progress

The Chachogi Village Fagli in Naggar Tehsil in Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh State, is characterized by the presence of four crowned masks with a similar color and style to the 5 used in the nearby Rumsu village festival.

Chachogi is a small Village in Naggar Tehsil in Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh State, India.

Compared to Rumsu, where the dancing masks are 5, in this ritual context the masks are instead 4.

The decorations with leaves and branches are similar between the two villages.

Chachogi Village Fagli – Photo Credit Updating in progress

The typical colors of these masks are the same used to decorate some facades of the village.

Chachogi Village Fagli – Photo Credit Updating in progress

The procession of the 4 masks led and oriented by an unmasked character, and an oracle (?) is similar to that of the village of Rumsu.

Chachogi Village Fagli – Photo Credit Updating in progress

Chachogi Village Fagli – Photo Credit Updating in progress

Chachogi Village Fagli – Photo Credit Updating in progress

A third group of similar materials both for body decoration and for iconographic analogy of the masks is represented by 4 masks in use in the

Sharan Fagli of Katli शरन फागली (कोटलु)

Sharan Fagli of Katli शरन फागली (कोटलु) – Photo Credit Updating in progress

The analogy between the masks used in the three territorial contexts is evident from the following sheet.

Photo Credit Updating in progress

A further study on these materials is ongoing, with the certainty of publishing further photographic materials relating to these interesting Fagli in the following months.

***

THE MASKING TRADITION IN TRIBAL INDIA AND HIMALAYA

23

living traditions explored in the course of this new research program devoted to the masked festivals of the Himalayan region and the Indian subcontinent.

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/mask-the-masking-tradition-in-tribal-india-and-himalaya/

A concise and unique methodology.

Coming Soon – Tirthan Valley – Fagli – Photo Credit Updating in Progress –

Hundreds of masks have already been taken into consideration, identified, localized and often explained in their meaning & unique iconography.

Barun Valley (बरुण उपत्यका) Sankhuwasabha District (सङ्खुवासभा जिल्ला) Bhote caste / Bhutias People Masked Festival Nepal

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence – Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

The materials are well represented and explained through the visual explanatory photo compositions Ethnoflorence’s style.

On the Left Budia character – Gavari Mewar Mask- Rajasthan – On the Right Raj Gond Kodal Pen character – Dandari – Ghusadi – Telangana – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence

EXPLORE FROM HERE

General Link

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/mask-the-masking-tradition-in-tribal-india-and-himalaya/

******

**

Explore a selection of the tens of thousands of images contained on the Ethnoflorence site through searching for Ethnoflorence

on

GOOGLE / YAHOO or BING IMAGE

Ethnoflorence Photo Archives Collection on Google Image Selection 2022

Ethnoflorence Photo Archives Collection on Google Image Selection 2022

***

Dev Shri Bithu Narayan’s Phagli Thachi Valley Mandi district Himachal Pradesh

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

2008 – 2022

***

THE MASKING TRADITION IN FOLK & TRIBAL INDIA & HIMALAYA

no 22

Each society lives in the present but its roots are in the past and through the tradition the past is connected with the present.

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/mask-the-masking-tradition-in-tribal-india-and-himalaya/

***

Dev Shri Bithu Narayan’s Phagli

Thachi Valley Mandi District

The Dev Shri Bithu Narayan’s Phagli it’s a ritual festival celebrated every three years for a period between 7 and 10 days in the different villages of the Thachi valley, in honor of the most important divinity of the place – Dev Shri Bithu Narayan – (whose mask we will talk about later).

Photo Credit of Thachi the Valley of Gods – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

The masks used in this valley, as for similar celebrations in different areas, have a

unique – documented – and well recognizable appearance

important characteristics to be able to discern materials in an ever more precise and scientific way

Dev Shri Bithu Narayan’s mask differs from this general iconographic characterization, as we shall see

Photo Credit of Thachi the Valley of Gods – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

These are masks, for the most part, with a white background, mustaches and beards (often light in color), a crown applied to the forehead of the mask with a polychrome and multi-material character. Strips of red fabric decorate the masks.

We will talk about these iconographic elements later.

Photo Credit of Thachi The Valley of Gods Dinesh Sharma – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence

From an examination of the photographic material it is immediately evident the high number of masks used in the course of this Faguli.

Photo Credit of Thachi The Valley of Gods Dinesh Sharma – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence

Old wooden masks, often repainted from festival to festival, are placed side by side with more recent materials during the ritual performance.

Photo Credit of The Valley of Gods Dinesh Sharma – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence

Wooden dance effigies, sometimes with an obscene character, are exhibited during the performances by some of the masked characters.

Photo Credit of Paharinati – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence

***

Among the masks that do not have a white background, a group of

Monkey / Lord Hanuman masks

stand out

characterized also by long beards and richly decorated crowns.

( in the photo published below are documented two masks that seem to be made recently – probably not in wood.)

Monkey masks are among those leading the procession of masks.

Photo credit of Thachi the Valley of Gods – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence

***

Another mask (danced with another one identic), certainly the most important of the festival, represents the divine character / mask of

Dev Shri Bithu Narayan

Photo Credit of Thachi The Valley of Gods Dinesh Sharma – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence

Dev Shri Bithu Narayan Mask

Photo Credit of Thachi The Valley of Gods Dinesh Sharma & Paharinati – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence

Photo Credit of Thachi The Valley of Gods Dinesh Sharma & Paharinati – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence

Photo Credit of Thachi The Valley of Gods Dinesh Sharma & Paharinati – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence

***

An unique iconographic combination

An animal skin pulled on a wooden frame and decorated in the smooth external part surmounted by a dark red monochrome mask, (together with another similar but gray color) is present and documented.

As with the monkey masks, this mask is also often documented along with those who lead the procession of masks.

Photo Credit of Thachi The Valley of Gods Dinesh Sharma – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence

***

A perforated iconography of the mouth

Returning to the iconography of masks with a white background, which constitute a typical and stylistically uniform corpus, some of them (we have chosen 3 for example BCD) have a perforated iconography of the mouth – similar to that found in one mask present in the Phagli of Khun , Anni Teshil, Kullu District (mask A).

Photo credit Updating in Progress

It is an iconographic feature that we will try to highlight every time it occurs in the different festivals.

***

A mouth with protruding teeth

Similar to the category of masks with a pierced mouth, another group of masks instead features a mouth with protruding teeth, making these masks particularly expressive.

Photo credit Updating in Progress

This iconographic typology opens up interesting iconographic comparisons.

***

A crown applied to the top / forehead of the mask

Another characteristic element of these masks is the presence on many of them of a crown applied on the forehead / upper part of the artifact.

Sometimes in fabric, others in cardboard or plastic, These are mobile elements added to the wooden artefact (for older masks) that offer us interesting iconographic elements.

Photo Credit of Paharinati

From festival to festival, in addition to being repainted, the mask can also have a different crown from that of the previous festival, as in the case documented in the two photos below, in which the same mask is documented with two different crowns (or as in the second case with a repainted crown)

A 1 – A 2

Photo credit Updating in Progress

B 1 – B 2

The movable crown, applied on the mask with metal sticks, has been repainted like the rest of the mask with a white monochrome color (Image B1).

Photo credit Updating in Progress

Strips of red fabric decorate the masks, attached with small sticks ( C 1 & C 2) as well as some of the crowns (C 3)

Photo credit Updating in progress

***

THE MASKING TRADITION IN TRIBAL INDIA AND HIMALAYA

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/mask-the-masking-tradition-in-tribal-india-and-himalaya/

22 living traditions explored in the course of this new research program devoted to the masked festivals of the Himalayan region and the Indian subcontinent.

Thachi valley twisted masks – Photo credit updating in progress – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence

Ethnoflorence Photo Archives Collection

A concise and unique methodology.

Valley – Local Museum – Photo credit updating in progress – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence

Hundreds of masks have already been taken into consideration, identified, localized and often explained in their meaning & unique iconography.

Photo Credit updating in progress

The materials are well represented and explained through the visual explanatory photo compositions Ethnoflorence’s style.

Photo credit updating in progress

EXPLORE FROM HERE

General Link

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/mask-the-masking-tradition-in-tribal-india-and-himalaya/

***

**

Explore a selection of the tens of thousands of images contained on the Ethnoflorence site through searching for Ethnoflorence on GOOGLE or / & BING IMAGE

Etnoflorence selection / search by image – Google & Bing

Etnoflorence selection / search by image – Google

***

Dhaugi धौगी village Fagli Festival in Sainj tehsil of Kullu district – Himachal Pradesh, India. Animistic Nepalese masks with a long nose

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

2008 – 2022

***

THE MASKING TRADITION IN FOLK & TRIBAL INDIA & HIMALAYA

no

21 – XXI – २१

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/mask-the-masking-tradition-in-tribal-india-and-himalaya/

***

(I)

Dhaugi धौगी village Fagli Festival in Sainj tehsil of Kullu district – Himachal Pradesh, India.

Over the last few months we have described various traditions linked to the Fagli festival in Himachal Pradesh, focusing on the different types of masks present in these representations of the ‘ritual / traditional’ theater.

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

Characterized by long beards,moustache and showy earrings, these masks, characteristic of the Sainj valley, have a unique, documented and well recognizable appearance.

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

In the village of Dhaugi the Fagli is characterized by the presence of about 20 masks; in addition to the mask, the various characters ‘wear’ tree branches which make their look particularly wild – a detail similar to other representations in different areas of the HP – as we will describe and document later.

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

Compared to other groups of masks typical of other areas or villages – these masks are not characterized by a homogeneous background color – but by variegated colors, which differentiate them chromatically.

The wooden masks are decorated with flowers – beards and earrings.

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

The mask (below) on the right – semi-flat – differs from most of those in this group. The cut of the eyes, outlined by a white line, is instead typical. The iconographic combination of mouth – teeth – mustache is interesting (also highlighted in white).

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

As already written, long beards and mustaches are the characterizing elements of the masks of this valley.

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

The decoration of the body of the masked character made with tree branches is similar to that practiced in the Fagli of Malana Village -Harlala Mask Dance Festival (photo on the left below) – (On the right – Dhaugi village – mask) where the dance of the masks is characterized by the presence of three barefoot masked dancers, dressed in traditional clothes and with the body wrapped in branches and green leaves.

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

The masks used in this village are characterized by a dark background thickly dotted with yellow, the cut of the eyes is typical, short fur mustaches are attached above the mouth, branches and green cannabis leaves  surround the body and the ends of the masks. (upper row in the picture below).

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

A similar ‘body’ decoration is also present in the masked characters of the Fagli of Rumsu Village Naggar Tehsil Kullu District – Himachal Pradesh. Dressed in traditional clothing and covered in branches with green leaves, the dancers act in row, wearing large crowned masks, following a costumed character (without a mask) who directs them (holding an ax). These are five large crowned wooden masks characterized by an ocher background color, decorations of the crown and face of the mask in golden yellow , mustache and eyebrows in black , teeth in white. (See photo below)

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

Different phases of the Dhaugi village Fagli Festival

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

CLIPPINGS SELECTION

*

Dhaugi Resume

Block / Tehsil → Sainj – District → Kullu – State → Himachal Pradesh

About Dhaugi

According to Census 2011 information the location code or village code of Dhaugi village is 012903. Dhaugi village is located in Sainj tehsil of Kullu district in Himachal Pradesh, India. It is situated 63km away from district headquarter Sainj. Sainj is the sub-district headquarter of Dhaugi village. As per 2009 stats, Dhaugi village is also a gram panchayat.

The total geographical area of village is 399 hectares. Dhaugi has a total population of 2,387 peoples, out of which male population is 1,203 while female population is 1,184. Literacy rate of dhaugi village is 70.05% out of which 76.89% males and 63.09% females are literate. There are about 503 houses in dhaugi village. Pincode of Dhaugi village locality is 175134.

Banjar is nearest town to Dhaugi village for all major economic activities.

(Info Credit of https://villageinfo.in/himachal-pradesh/kullu/sainj/dhaugi.html)

**

THE MASKING TRADITION IN TRIBAL INDIA AND HIMALAYA

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/mask-the-masking-tradition-in-tribal-india-and-himalaya/

21 living traditions explored in the course of this new research program devoted to the masked festivals of the Himalayan region and the Indian subcontinent.

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

A concise and unique methodology.

Hundreds of masks have already been taken into consideration, identified, localized and often explained in their meaning & unique iconography.

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

The materials are well represented and explained through the visual explanatory photo compositions Ethnoflorence’s style.

EXPLORE FROM HERE

General Link

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/mask-the-masking-tradition-in-tribal-india-and-himalaya/

***

(II)

UPCOMING EVENTS

Join us for Paper Machie Craft making workshop at Odisha Crafts Museum- Kala Bhoomi on 14th June’2022 from 11:00 am to 01:30 pm.

To register call at

8093577674

or email at

info@odishacraftsmuseum.com

(III)

EXTRACTS FROM OUR PHOTO ARCHIVES COLLECTIONS

In the posts of the first years of this site – we are talking about the period between 2008 and 2010 – the photos in our archive were used to start the editorial adventure of Ethnoflorence, a selection from it, it’s still published by us after 14 years. Times and the web have changed profoundly in the meantime, and our editorial line has evolved over the years, but we still believe in the expressive and educational power of these materials.

Animistic Nepalese masks with a long nose

Compared to masks with long noses with a phallic or particularly hooked appearance, this mask instead has a long nose with an unusual cylindrical shape.

Photo & Composition by Ethnoflorence – Ethnoflorence Photo Archives Collection Folders no 306

***

The hooked nose of this mask is balanced and well proportioned to the rest of the face and harmonized with the prominent masses of the forehead and chin.

Photo & Composition by Ethnoflorence – Ethnoflorence Photo Archives Collection Folders no 253

***

In this third mask the hooked nose is instead disharmonious with respect to the frontal perspective axis of the mask and disproportionate to the general dimensions of the piece.

Photo & Composition by Ethnoflorence – Ethnoflorence Photo Archives Collection Folders no 112

***

(IV)

*

***

Madhana मधाना Fagli Festival Shimla District – Himachal Pradesh and a comparation with Thatibir and Seraj Valley masks.

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

2008 – 2022

***

THE MASKING TRADITION IN FOLK & TRIBAL

INDIA & HIMALAYA

no 20

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/mask-the-masking-tradition-in-tribal-india-and-himalaya/

***

(I)

Madhana मधाना

Shimla District

Himachal Pradesh

Fagli Festival

***

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

We have often spoken of traditional indian and Himalayan’s representations in which a considerable number of masks have been performed and documented.

In today’s case, we document a festival with a smaller number of two (documented) masks , represented / danced in the Fagli of Madhena – in the Shimla district.

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

A rather traditionally shaped male masks with painted mustache, polychromy with a white background, represented below in two similar masks, both decorated with feathers.

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

The representation of the character of the mask carrying a basket over his / its shoulders recurs also in other local representations.

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

For a comparison, see the analogous representation acted in the Phagali festival of the Seraj Valley.

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

and with that, a mask with black and white decorations on a red background (see the picture below), present in the Phagali representation of Thatibir

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

Phagali red mask of Thatibir

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

***

THE MASKING TRADITION IN TRIBAL INDIA AND HIMALAYA

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/mask-the-masking-tradition-in-tribal-india-and-himalaya/

20 living traditions explored in the course of this new research program devoted to the masked festivals of the Himalayan region and the Indian subcontinent.

A concise and unique methodology.

Photo credit updating in Progress – Photo composition by Ethnoflorence

Hundreds of masks have already been taken into consideration, identified, localized and often explained in their meaning & unique iconography.

The materials are well represented and explained through the visual explanatory photo compositions Ethnoflorence’s style.

EXPLORE FROM HERE

General Link

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/mask-the-masking-tradition-in-tribal-india-and-himalaya/

***

(II)

EXTRACTS FROM OUR PHOTO ARCHIVES COLLECTIONS

In the posts of the first years of this site – we are talking about the period between 2008 and 2010 – the photos in our archive were used to start the editorial adventure of Ethnoflorence, a selection from it, it’s still published by us after 14 years. Times and the web have changed profoundly in the meantime, and our editorial line has evolved over the years, but we still believe in the expressive power of these materials.

A drammatic

Himalayan mask

Photo & Composition by Ethnoflorence – Ethnoflorence Photo Archives Collection – Folder no 212

***

An old Zoomorphic Rajbansi Mask

Wood, plaster, layer of color, speaking of the patinas of the masks – some productions include this type of technique, with, sometimes a drawback, that of plaster which, by absorbing humidity, raises the layer of color and causes its loss.

The Rajbansi zoomorphic mask reproduced below denotes a patina of this particular type (described above).

Photo & Composition by Ethnoflorence – Ethnoflorence Photo Archives Collection – Folder no 255

In this case, the mask must be stored and handled with care.

**

(III)

Explore a selection of the tens of thousands of images contained on the Ethnoflorence site through searching for Ethnoflorence on GOOGLE / YAHOO or BING IMAGE

*


Barun Valley (बरुण उपत्यका) – Sankhuwasabha District (सङ्खुवासभा जिल्ला) Bhote caste / Bhutias People Masked Festival, Nepal.

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

***

(I)

THE MASKING TRADITION IN FOLK & TRIBAL

INDIA & HIMALAYA

no 19

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/mask-the-masking-tradition-in-tribal-india-and-himalaya/

***

Barun Valley

(बरुण उपत्यका)

Sankhuwasabha District

(सङ्खुवासभा जिल्ला)

Bhote caste / Bhutias People Masked Festival Nepal

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana

https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?search=Folklore+Barun+Barun+Sankhuwasabha+Nepal+Rajesh+Dhungana&title=Special:MediaSearch&go=Go&type=image

Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

*

The ancient tradition of celebrating Losar – new year – dates back to the arrival of Buddhism in Tibet and has its roots in the Bon religion. The festival in Nepal is called Lhochhar and is observed about eight weeks earlier than the Tibetan Losar.

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

The following photographs, taken in Nepal’s Barun Valley – Sankhuwasabha District – during a (2008’s) Bhote caste Masked festival, should be related with this main annual celebration.

As already done for other masked festivals in the region, also in this case we will focus our attention on the iconography of a group of masks present during the celebrations.

A local context in which echoes of pre-Bon culture still seem to be present – as well as an interesting and heterogeneous variety of materials present.

These three dark monochromatic wooden masks – A B C – represent classical characters – wrathful gods / protectors of religion – in the local reinterpretation of classical iconographic canons.

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

The accentuation of the prominent and rounded facial elements is reflected in the stylistic rendering of the five skulls that crown the masks, peculiar of this peripheral style but also typical when and if compared to the more integral one of classical representations.

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

Made with ephemeral materials, mask -D- is colorful and scenographic.

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

Mask D in it’s details

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

The zoomorphic mask -G- is accompanied by the -E & F- wooden masks characterized by a masculine appearance – dark monochromes (with dark yak and horse hairs) – facial elements highlighted by light paint – red (E & F) and yellow (H).

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence – Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

Three dark masks (E F H) with a rather minimal but homogeneous style, to note the round stylistic rendering of the eyes – surrounded by white and red paint.

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence – Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

Mask – I – could have been made with papier mache, and it is characterized by a red background color and rounded eyes (outlined with white color).

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence – Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

Mask – L – has iconographic characters similar to the artefacts – A B C – it differs from them for a bright red background color.

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

Compared to the analogous characters examined previously (ABC & L) the mask – M – seems to have a more refined style.

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence – Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

Overall these 11 masks identified through photographic images, testify to a remote tradition but still alive unique and original in some of its materials.

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence – Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence – Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

Photo Credit of Rajesh Dhungana – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence – Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0

***

THE MASKING TRADITION IN TRIBAL INDIA AND HIMALAYA

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/mask-the-masking-tradition-in-tribal-india-and-himalaya/

19 living traditions explored in the course of this new research program devoted to the masked festivals of the Himalayan region and the Indian subcontinent.

A concise and unique methodology.

Hundreds of masks have already been taken into consideration, identified, localized and often explained in their meaning & unique iconography.

The materials are well represented and explained through the visual explanatory photo compositions Ethnoflorence’s style.

***

EXPLORE FROM HERE

General Link

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/mask-the-masking-tradition-in-tribal-india-and-himalaya/

***

(II)

EXTRACTS FROM OUR PHOTO ARCHIVES COLLECTIONS

In the posts of the first years of this site – we are talking about the period between 2008 and 2010 – the photos in our archive were used to start the editorial adventure of Ethnoflorence, a selection from it, it’s still published by us after 14 years. Times and the web have changed profoundly in the meantime, and our editorial line has evolved over the years, but we still believe in the expressive power of these materials.

Antique pair of crowned Sherpa masks

– dark crust patina –

(Frontal detail)

Photo & Composition by Ethnoflorence – Ethnoflorence Photo Archives Collection Folders no 290 & 308

Ancient Western Nepalese demon mask with anthropomorphic and geometric figures engraved on its surface

(Side & Frontal details)

Photo & Composition by Ethnoflorence – Ethnoflorence Photo Archives Collection – Folder no 304

Gurung Mask

Sunsan Dharan District

(Frontal and side view – details)

Photo & Composition by Ethnoflorence – Ethnoflorence Photo Archives Collection – Folder no 290

Comparative compositions – Innovative Solutions

The images of the upper parts of the masks (below) are obtained through a professional scanner – obtaining a (very) high definition of the details.

Photo & Composition by Ethnoflorence – Ethnoflorence Photo Archives Collection – Folder no 288 & 290

Photo & Composition by Ethnoflorence – Ethnoflorence Photo Archives Collection – Folder no 288

**

(III)

Explore a selection of the tens of thousands of images contained on the Ethnoflorence site through searching for Ethnoflorence on GOOGLE / YAHOO or BING IMAGE

*

Kirtipur Panga Saparu – Gai Jatra – Kwapa – Mukundos Masks

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

***

THE MASKING TRADITION IN FOLK & TRIBAL

INDIA & HIMALAYA

no 18

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/mask-the-masking-tradition-in-tribal-india-and-himalaya/

***

(I)

Kirtipur Panga Saparu – Gai Jatra

gāi means cow and jātrā means festival

गाई जात्रा – सा पारु

is a festival observed by the people of the Newar community of Nepal of the
Kathmandu Valley, celebrated in the month of Bhadra (August – September) –

In this research we will deal with the festival held in Kirtipur, in which different sets of masks are danced every year, linked together by a typical and recurring iconography. A comparative section is dedicated in particular to the iconography of fungus masks and to the masks made from the head of a fish.

On the Left Panga Gaijatra (SaPaRu) 2075 Official Route – on the right the masked group A participating in the festival

Kirtipur किपू

(term derived from the Sanskrit words :  Kirti =glory & pur= city )

It’s an ancient city of Nepal,  center of Newar culture, located in the Kathmandu valley, southwest of the major city and together with it (Kathmandu), Lalitpur, Bhaktapur and Madhyapur Thimi is one of the five municipalities of the valley.

The center of Gaijatra celebration in Kirtipur falls in a part of the old city known as Panga.

An examination of the most ancient photographic materials reveals a continuity and iconographic similarity of the masks used in the past compared to those in use today.

In the two photos published below, dated 1982, taken by Tom Learmonth, we can see how while are still in use both the mask obtained from a dark-colored fish head and the one in red monochromatic wood.

The smaller flat one seem to have an iconography that is has evolved into materials similar in shape but with a slightly different face’s chromy.

Photo Credit of Tom Learmonth

The Red Wooden Mask also reappears in one (the first – right) of the two undated black and white photos below, along with the group of smaller oval, flat, masculine ones, of which we have a similar version in the actual material.

(from the photos in b / w it is however difficult to understand the type of color present on the masks)

Photo Credit of Panga Kirtipur

Photo Credit of Panga Kirtipur

The iconography of the red wooden mask over the time is clearer in the compositions published below

Photo Credit updating in progress

As for the mask obtained from the head of a fish

for which there are, in recent times, two versions used (in different sets) , one dark blue (1982 & 2017) and the other in natural color (2018) – (and a third one on wood).

Photo credit of Photo Credit of Tom Learmonth (on the left) –

The evolution of the male flat one from the monotone version (1982) to the later – (ND – 2019) is evident from this photographic composition.

Photo credit of Photo Credit of Tom Learmonth (on the left) –

The red wooden mask and the one made from the head of a fish are part of the five Kwapa – Mukundos

used in the Panga Saparu – cow procession –

The third mask – Kwapa – we take into consideration is the one obtained from a Fungus.

It is a dark-colored zoomorphic fungus mask (2011-2015-2017) with facial features outlined by the use of white and red color.

Photo credit updating in progress

From the Left, in 2020 this mask was used (as a set) together with the two other Kwapa described above (blue Fish mask & red wooden mask)

Photo credit of Galche Dafa Khala

We can call this first group of masks group A

Full Group A – Photo Credit of Ruz_nphotography (2021)

Three major characters – group A

Photo credit of Shir Irish Shyami – (2019)

The characteristic two-tone flat male masks

Two-tone flat male masks – Group A – Photo Credit of Galche Dafa Khala

Two-tone flat male masks – Group A – Photo Credit of Galche Dafa Khala

***

A different version of the fungus mask of the group A was documented in 2018 in a different group (set) of masks (note how the mask obtained from the fish head of this group has the mouth closed compared to the other two specimens considered above). It is a particularly expressive specimen – note the prominent fangs – outlined (like the rest of the details of the face) with a light color on a dark background.

We can call this second group of masks group B

Group B – Photo Credit Updating in Progress

***

A similar (looking ? ) fungus mask , is featured in another group, danced together with a fish head mask – iconographically similar to the two examples of Group A & C, but made of wood.

We can call this third group of masks group C

From the photo it is difficult to understand whether the mask is also a fungus or a wooden one carved in the style of a fungus.

Group C – Photo credit updating in progress

Main Characters of Group C

***

Archaic and powerful, an additional zoomorphic fungus mask is known to be in use in a fourth set of masks

We can call this fourth group of masks group D

Photo credit of Jatra ko Yatra

Photo credit updating in progress

Here the complete set of masks of Group D

Photo credit updating in progress

Sad News

Among the 10 Khawapa (Mukundo) used in Panga Saparu (Gai Jatra) were stolen a few months after it was found. If the lost khwapa has not been found yet, new khwapas are being prepared for the upcoming festival.

Note:

If you see this khwapa anywhere near you, please inform the nearest police station or government office.

Photo credit of Sugam Tamrakar & Nikesh Maharjan

Fungus mask – side view & detail of the complex attachment system of the mask to the face

Photo credit of Jatra ko Yatra

Mask made from a fish head – group D

Photo credit of LittleGuy Photography

Photo credit updating in progress

Photo credit of  Pranish Shrestha

***

***

Food for Tought

Vintage Panga Gaijatra Photo Credit of Panga Kirtipur

One Fish head mask with a rich polichromy was published in Petit/Lequindre Nepal Shamanisme et Sculpture Tribale Infolio 2010 & Gisele Krauskopff VOYAGES EN SHANGRILA LE MARCHE’ “IN SITU” DES OBJET D’ART PRIMITIF D’HIMALAYA” ; Renzo Freschi, Himalayan Masks, Lanfranchi Collection 2017.

In the first and third (publication) was also published a Fungus mask, probably belonging from the same set / group of masks.

Petit/Lequindre Nepal Shamanisme et Sculpture Tribale Infolio 2010

Renzo Freschi, Himalayan Masks, Lanfranchi Collection 2017

Renzo Freschi, Himalayan Masks, Lanfranchi Collection 2017

Some essays devoted to the so called fungus masks

(a)
Ethnomycologie Nepalaise Masques en Polypores – par Guy Durrieu – Mashedh Humar Adhikari & JP Girolami (in Bull. Soc. mycol. Fr., 130 (1-2) p.57-71 2014.
(b)
Lettre Du Toit du Monde Numero 25 Mars 2018 – Les Masques – Champignons du Nepal par Francois Pannier
https://www.letoitdumonde.net/images/lettres/pdf/LETTRE-TDM-25.pdf
(c)
Extraordinary Fungal Masks used by the Indigenous People of North America and Asia – by Robert A. Blanchette (in Fungi volume 10:3 Fall 2017)
https://www.fungimag.com/fall-2017-articles/V10I3%20LR%20Masks%208_12.pdf

****

(II)

Explore a selection of the tens of thousands of images contained on the Ethnoflorence site through searching for Ethnoflorence

on

GOOGLE / YAHOO or BING IMAGE

*

THE MASKING TRADITION IN TRIBAL INDIA AND HIMALAYA

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

***

THE MASKING TRADITION IN TRIBAL INDIA AND HIMALAYA

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/mask-the-masking-tradition-in-tribal-india-and-himalaya/

***

A resume of the 17 living traditions explored in the course of the first steps of this new research devoted to the masked festivals of the Himalayan region and the Indian subcontinent.

Un résumé des 17 traditions vivantes explorées au cours des premières étapes de cette nouvelle recherche consacrée aux fêtes masquées de la région himalayenne et du sous-continent indien. / Un riassunto delle 17 tradizioni viventi esplorate nel corso dei primi passi di questa nuova ricerca dedicata alle feste mascherate della regione himalayana e del subcontinente indiano.

A concise methodology.

Une méthodologie concise. / Una metodologia sintetica

Hundreds of masks have already been taken into consideration, identified, localized and often explained in their meaning & unique iconography.

Centaines de masques ont déjà été pris en considération, identifiés, localisés et souvent expliqués dans leur sens & leur iconographie. / Centinaia di maschere sono già state prese in considerazione, identificate, localizzate e spesso spiegate nel loro significato iconografico.

***

The material are well represented through the visual explanatory photo compositions Ethnoflorence’s style.

**

Photo Credit’s on the linked pages – Compositions by Ethnoflorence

1

HillJatra Masks in Pithoragarh Uttarakhand

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/2021/08/11/masks-of-the-uttarakhand-a-living-tradition-hilljatra-masks-in-pithoragarh-an-explicated-meaning-and-iconography/

2

Bikhoti (बिखोती) Bhotiya Ritual Dance Mask Festival of Lata village – Nanda Devi National Park in the Chamoli District , Uttarakhand

Bikhoti (बिखोती) Bhotiya Ritual Dance Mask Festival of Lata village – Nanda Devi National Park in the Chamoli District , Uttarakhand

3

Saloor Dungra (twin) Villages Ramman Religious
Masked Festival and Ritual Theatre of Garhwal Uttarakhand

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/2021/08/22/uttarakhand-saloor-dungra-twin-villages-ramman-religious-masked-festival-and-ritual-theatre-of-garhwal/

4

Gavari Festival Ecstatic Theater Performance Mewar region, Rajasthan

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/2021/09/06/gavari-festival-ecstatic-theater-performance-mewar-region-of-rajasthan-india-an-explicated-iconography/

5

Bhari Gan Masked Ritual Theater Festival – Pati-Rabha Community, Assam

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/2021/09/13/bhari-gan-masked-ritual-theater-festival-pati-rabha-community-an-explicated-iconography/

6

Gomira Masks Dance of Kusmandi Area – Dakshin Dinajpur District West Bengal

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/2021/09/18/gomira-masks-dances-of-kusmandi-area-dakshin-dinajpur-district-west-bengal-an-explicated-iconography/

7

Raban Kata, Masked Dance – Bishnupur – Bankura District – West Bengal

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/2021/09/21/raban-kata-masked-dance-bishnupur-bankura-district-west-bengal/

8

Raj Gond Dandari – Ghusadi Adilabad district Telangana Festival Ritual Dance गुसाडी दंडार –

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/2021/09/27/raj-gond-dandari-ghusadi-adilabad-district-telangana-festival-ritual-dance-%e0%a4%97%e0%a5%81%e0%a4%b8%e0%a4%be%e0%a4%a1%e0%a5%80-%e0%a4%a6%e0%a4%82%e0%a4%a1%e0%a4%be%e0%a4%b0/

9

Bohada Festival – बोहड़ा उत्सव – महाराष्ट्र Maharasthra Thane District

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/2021/10/24/bohada-festival-maharasthra-thane-district-maharashtra/

10

Shikali Jatra kokhana Newari Town in Lalitpur Kathmandu Valley Nepal

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/2021/10/29/shikali-jatra-masked-festival-in-khokana-newari-town-in-lalitpur-kathmandu-valley/

11

Shri Shwetkali (Dyatbhulu) Ajatra of Devi

Naradevi – Kathmandu, North of the Basantapur near Chhetrapati –

Nepal

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/2022/03/28/naradevi-shri-shwetkali-dyatbhulu-ajatra-of-devi-2076/

12

FAGLI KARTHA NAG TEMPLE

Iconographic Repertoire of a Living Tradition

Himachal Pradesh

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/2022/01/30/fagli-kartha-nag-temple-iconographic-repertoire-of-a-living-tradition-2022/

13

PALDI FAGLI PANJAJN VALLEY

Himachal Pradesh

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/2022/02/06/paldi-fagli-panjajn-valley-masked-festival-iconographic-repertoire-of-a-living-tradition-himachal-pradesh/

14
PALDI FAGLI पलदी फागली Rumsu रुम्सू Village Naggar Tehsil Kullu District

Himachal Pradesh

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/2022/02/09/paldi-fagli-rumsu-village-naggar-tehsil-kullu-district-himachal-pradesh/

15

PALDI FAGLI Malana मलाणा Village मलाना हिल्स हिमाचल Harlala Mask Dance Festival

Himachal Pradesh

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/2022/02/11/paldi-fagli-manala-village-%e0%a4%ae%e0%a4%b2%e0%a4%be%e0%a4%a8%e0%a4%be-%e0%a4%b9%e0%a4%bf%e0%a4%b2%e0%a5%8d%e0%a4%b8-%e0%a4%b9%e0%a4%bf%e0%a4%ae%e0%a4%be%e0%a4%9a%e0%a4%b2-harlala-mask-dance-festiva/

16

Fera Phera or Parikrama Fagli in the Anni Tehsil of Kullu district Ladhagi लढ़ागी, Banas बनास, Rumali, Lafali and Buchhair Villages – Kali Naag Temple PART I – पलदी फागली

Himachal Pradesh

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/2022/02/17/fera-phera-or-parikrama-fagli-in-the-anni-tehsil-of-kullu-district-ladhagi-banas-rumali-lafali-and-buchhair-villages-kali-naag-temple-part-i/

17

PAGLI OF KHUN खून

Masks in Anni Tehsil in Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh State, India Part I

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/2022/03/10/pagli-of-khun-%e0%a4%96%e0%a5%82%e0%a4%a8-masks-in-anni-tehsil-in-kullu-district-of-himachal-pradesh-state-india-part-i/

***************

THE DAILY PRAYERS OF THE BRAHMINS 1851 Sophie Charlotte Belnos Vintage Postcards and Early Bibliography A selected and Explicated Iconography

ETHNOFLORENCE
INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN
FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS
AN INTERDISCIPLINARY POINT OF VIEW


Vintage Postcards and Early Bibliography
A selected and Explicated Iconograpy

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/vintage-postcards/
https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/bibliography-india-himalaya-a-selection/

***

THE SUNDHYA

or

THE DAILY PRAYERS OF THE BRAHMINS

1851 

Sophie Charlotte Belnos

***

Photo Credit of https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?search=Illustration+from+the+Daily+Prayers+of+the+Brahmins&title=Special:MediaSearch&go=Go&type=image

Plate I

THE BRAHMIN’S FIRST MORNING PRAYER TO THE GOOROO ON RISING


It is habitual with the Natives, all over India, to rise with the first dawn of day. The Brahmin sits up on his charpaya or on a mat on the ground, and, joining his hands, repeats the following prayer to the Gooroo (High Priest, who is considered by the Hindoos to he invested with the power of a Deity, and to have sprung from the Gods. To him the Brahmin offers up his first morning orisons. The words, in Sanscrit, are as contained in the Poorans, the following being a literal translation: “I glorify thee, Benign, who rests upon a serpent, from whose navel the lotus springs; God of Gods! the supporter of the universe; beautiful as the azure of the sky; cloud-like in colour; elegant in form. “The husband of Luxshmee, lotus-eyed, worthy the contemplation of sages! Vishnoo, the preserver and destroyer the world! the only Lord of the universe! “I glorify him who is to be always contemplated, the remover of all stains, the granter of all desires, the essence of all holy shrines; who is praised by Siva and by Brahma, the universal refuge, the assuager of the pain of his servants, the protector of those who bend before him, the bark to bear us over the ocean of the world. I praise thy lotus-feet, oh mighty male.

Plate II

THE BRAHMIN’S FIRST CEREMONY ON ENTERING THE GANGES.
HE REPEATS THE GUNGASHTUK


HAVING terminated his prayers to the Gooroo, he quits his place of repose; and filling a brass vessel, called Julpatree, he commences by washing his face and rubbing his teeth, praying at the same time, that all impurity may thus be cleansed away from him, and he be made as pure within as without. Then, proceeding to the river-side, he enters the Ganges, knee-deep, sprinkles a little water, by a quick jerk of the right-hand, over his head; and holding some in the half-closed palm of the same hand, he addresses the great Deity Bhagwan in the following words:—
“Vishnu! Vishnu! Vishnu! Adoration to the supreme Deity! the first eternal male! the resplendent sun! May the benefits that result from this adoration be bestowed (on such a person—naming himself) performing worship in Jambu Dwípa (India) in the second portion of the life of Brahma, in the Kalpa of Varáha, in the Manwantara (or reign of the Manu) Vaivaswata, at this holy spot on (such) a year (such) a fortnight, when the sun was in an auspicious sign! for I am desirous of fulfilling the duties which are enjoined by the Purans, the Smriti (law), and the Srutí (or Vedas).”
This said, he plunges several times in the Ganges; and while he rubs each member of his body in the sacred stream, he chants the following verses in praise of Gunga: 1st verse. “When a man goes into the sacred waters, he must sing her praise thus: ‘O Juggutmata! whoever shall, day and night, fix his heart and his thoughts upon thee, is righteous and holy in all his works; and he who worships thee, in the hope of obtaining a place in heaven, will not be disappointed. O Mata! (mother) all my hopes of salvation are in thy hands! Grant me every good in this life, and heaven in the one to come!’ 2d verse. “Those whom thou hast endowed with handsome features, and full, lovely eyes, their beauty is consecrated to thy service, that they might gaze upon thee with admiration and adoration. O Mata! he whose hearing is deaf to the rippling of thy waters, is worthless in thy sight. 3d verse. “O Gunga! the gods descend in their glorious cars, to bathe in thy holy stream! The sinner, who hath been condemned to the regions of darkness and punishment, by washing in thy sacred water shall be purified, and received in the realms of everlasting bliss. Blessed is the land through which thou flowest, for thou deliverest the people thereof from all sorrow and evils; and gods adore thee!
4th verse. “He who strikes a Priest, commits robbery, seduces the wife of his teacher, and he who is given to drunkenness; yea, even he who hath committed all these crimes, if, when brought dying to thy sacred waters, he shall drink thereof, he shall surely see heaven.

Plate III

Plate IV

No other meaning is attached to these figures, but that they are pleasing to the Deities.

The Brahmin commences with the figure No. 1, Soon-mookum (the closed lotus); then gradually spreading his fingers, describes the full-blown flower. He then makes the sign of Ek-mookum, Do-mookum, Teen-mookum, Choutah-mookum, and then the rest of the figures illustrated in Plates 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. These are called Moodras, of which there are twenty-four in the Sundhya.

Plate VI

After having performed all the figures contained in Plates 4 and 5, the Brahmin proceeds to the Pranayama,

taking an inward view of Vishnoo Bhagwan, and Mahadeo; the first, “Preserver of the Universe,” the latter, “The Destroyer of all.” This ceremony is performed in the following manner: 1st, he presses in the right nostril with the fourth finger of his left hand, repeating the name of each Deity; and counting them nine times over upon the joints of the fingers of his right hand with great rapidity, half closing his eyes the while, and drawing in his breath; then gently pressing in the left nostril with the thumb, as in fig. 2, he breathes out, repeating the same name as many times over. Then releasing the right nostril, and still pressing in the left with the thumb, as in fig. 3, he terminates the Pranayama. These names, &c., are not uttered aloud, but merely by the movement of the lips.

Plate VII

The Pranayama concluded, the Brahmin takes up water in the palm of his left hand; and, touching it with the tips of the fingers of his right hand, he sprinkles it over his head.

Then, dropping his right hand, and taking up fresh water, he presents it to the right nostril, drawing in his breath; then pours out the water on the left side of the palm. He then takes up the Urgha (a long, shallow vessel of copper), filled with water, over which he strews yellow and red sandal, raw rice, and a few flowers (the Hindoos are not particular in the choice of the flowers in these prayers): then, rising from his seat, he holds the Urgha with both hands, passing one end of the Janeo (Brahminic thread) over the thumb and the Urgha, and repeating the following prayer to the sun: Translation Oh, Sun of a thousand rays! most glorious Lord of the world! have mercy upon me! I am thy servant: accept my offering of water, oh, Lord of the day! Here the Brahmin pours out the contents of the Urgha

Plate VIII

He then makes the sign, as illustrated in this plate, with the hands and fingers, forming a hole between the middle fingers: holding them up to his left eye, he takes a survey of the sun. After this he resumes his seat, in the same attitude as before, the right leg crossed over the left, and then proceeds to the Gáyatri-Jup.

Translation “Whatever mortals in this world offer thee thanksgiving day by day, will never experience poverty in a thousand births.”

Plate IX

This prayer is called the Gáyatri-Jup: it is secret, and cannot be divulged to any but a Brahmin; it must be whispered only in his ear.

The figures performed with the right hand, while the left one hangs listlessly over his right foot, must be cautiously concealed from all prying eyes by a red cloth bag, drawn over the hand, and hanging down on all sides. This bag is called Gumookhi, and is generally made of red broad-cloth. The Hindoos, however, commonly content themselves with throwing a part of their wrapping-cloth over the hand, which serves the same purpose as the bag.

Plate XI

After the secret prayer, he makes the sign of the eight Moodras, six of which are illustrated in the Plate.

The remainder, i.e. Gyan and Bairagya, I have given in the two following Plates.

Plate XI

As the two remaining figures of the eight Moodras in the “Gáyatri-Jup” are performed by a change of posture

I have given the full figure of the praying devotee; the right arm resting over the knee of his right leg, the great toe of which foot he holds with the thumb and index.

Plate XII

This concludes the ceremony performed by the Brahmins daily in their sacred stream, or on the banks of the river.

The generality of the Hindoos, however, do not adhere strictly to the performance of every part of the ceremonies enjoined by their Poorans and Shasters, but merely repeating the first few Moodras, and then, sprinkling some water on the head, they go home. It is all a matter of conscience with the inferior sects of Hindoos whether they perform the ceremonies prescribed by their religion strictly, or otherwise; these consisting generally of the working classes and men of business, who are forced to shorten their devotion from press of time, and various other causes.

Plate XIII & XIV

These vessels are indispensable in all their religious ceremonies, and are 16 in number

Shunkh

The conch-shell


Artee

It is borne by the figure of Balgovind, an attendant on the Gods: he holds five brass lamps, which are lighted in particular ceremonies.

The Devotee gives it a circular movement as he holds it up before the image of the Deity worshipped, so as to throw the rays of the light equally on every part.

Ghunta – Bell

The figure on the top represents one of their angels.

The bell is rung when the conch is blown: this is done to call the attention of the Gods.


Urgha

A copper vessel used in the ablutions of the images.

Dhoopdan

For burning incense before the image.

Abkhora

A ewer for presenting drink-offerings to the Gods

Nundee

The humped bull on which Mahadeo rides.

Samputee

A copper vessel used also in presenting offerings.

Kuttoree

Also of copper, to give offerings of flowers.

Thalee

A large brass round dish for offering fruits and sweetmeats.


Dhoopdanee

A smaller brass vessel for offering incense.

Laghupatra

A small brass cup to mix up sandal in.

Singhasan

—The chair or seat for the images or idols.

Brihut Achamani

A large spoon, to offer water to the Deity.

Laghu Achamani

To offer water to the Deity, to cleanse his mouth.


Shunkh

(upon the stand “Tictee”) is used to pour water upon the idols.

Plate XV

POOJA OF VISHNOO—POURING WATER UPON THE SALIGRAM.


THE Saligram is a small red stone, a kind of Ammonite, found in the River Gunduck; and is held sacred by the Hindoos, and worshipped as an Idol. According to the Poorans, it is dedicated to Vishnoo: it is kept in a small box of any white metal the worshipper may have the means of procuring: iron alone is excluded. The Artee, Dhoopdanee, Thalee, Ghunta, Abkhora, Sumputtee, Kuttoree, red and yellow sandal-flowers, toolsee, betel-leaves, sooparee, areka-nut, jeneo, a piece of cloth to cover the Saligram, sweetmeats, and the shunk, or conch shell, are all necessary in this worship. From this deity the votary supplicates never to be born again in this world. This sign is worn, on the forehead between the eyebrow, and is put on in the Pooja of Vishnoo: it is done with the mud of the sacred stream: many draw it on the breast and arms also. The necklace is of toolsee-seeds. TRANSLATION FROM THE SANSKRIT VERSES IN THE POOJA OF VISHNOO. SALIGRAM, THE TYPE OF VISHNOO.
Invocation to the Deity. 1st verse. O Deo! O Bhagwan! O Purmeswur! transfer thy omnipotent presence from the realms of ether, and descend to the region of mortals. Approach, O sovereign Deity! Behold, I lay before thee my thank-offerings, that thou mayest at all times be pleased with my works. 2d verse. (Placing the Idol upon the Singhasun, he proceeds)—O Prubhoo! behold, thy chair is made of the purest gold, and it is studded with the most precious gems, and the shape thereof is like unto a lion. Sit thou upon thy throne, even as the earth, which the great serpent Shes-nág bears, is thy footstool. 3d verse. O Deva! behold, for thy ablution I have prepared the water warmed and perfumed with a thousand odoriferous flowers. Accept it, and bathe; and be merciful to thy servant. 7th verse. O Vishnoo! behold, here is raiment for thee, for winter and for summer, of the finest texture, and of costly materials; so that thou being well clothed, thy countenance will shine in beatitude.
8th verse. O Deva! this Jeneo is the one which Brahma hath woven with thread, and the knot of Vishnoo is upon it. O Junardun, accept my offering

Plate XVI

POOJA OF MAHADEO (MAHADEVA).


IN the worship of this Deity the devotee requests grandeur and wealth. The horn of the deer is blown in this Pooja: offerings of fruit and sweetmeats are laid upon the Nundee; also the leaves of the bale-fruit tree, white flowers, a few blades of the dhoop-ghas (hay). The jeneo (brahmin-thread) is rolled up with areeka-nut and betel-leaves. The sign worn in this Pooja of Mahadeo is this , drawn with yellow sandal. The head, neck, and wrist are adorned with strings of the Roodrakh (the dried berries of the Eleocarpus).
TRANSLATION OF THE VERSION IN THE POOJA OF MAHADEO.
1st verse. “O Earth! all the created beings who inhabit thee! and Devee, whom Vishnoo hath brought up from below! I likewise am thy inhabitant: sanctify me.” (Here the devotee takes up water in the palm of his right hand. After repeating the foregoing lines he sprinkles it under the mat upon which he is seated, puts some drops into his mouth, and, filling his half-closed palm with fresh water, says)— 2d verse. “O Shiu! fulfil the object of this my worship to thee. Give unto me all that my heart desireth, and deliver me from evil.”
(He here pours out the water from his hand).
MUNTRA.
“Om Hrang, Hring, Hrong, Shivaya-nama.”
(Then raising his joined hands to his head reverentially to the Deity, he spreads out his hands and fingers, which he slides down his whole figure from head to foot, and then makes the signs of the Kurna-nyas, after which the signs of the Hridayadi-nyas; then closing his eyes and folding his arms he proceeds to an inward contemplation of the gods, saying)—
1st verse. “I worship thee, Shiu! Thou art perpetually in my thoughts. Thou shinest like polished silver; and refulgent as the moon are thine ear-rings, and thy form appears resplendent with bright and precious jewels. In one hand thou bearest an axe, and in the other the skin of the deer. Thou sittest, with thy feet under thee, upon thy throne; and all the gods praise thee.
2d verse. “Thy covering is of the lion’s skin; and thou art the first Male. Thou art the type of the world; and thou deliverest mankind from fear and danger. Thou hast five faces. Such art thou, Shiu. Reverence be unto thee.
3d verse. “Thou art light as the purest camphor. Thy mercies are infinite. The first and the last in the universe. Thy necklace is of entwined serpents. Such is Shiu: the Shiu who has Parbutee seated beside him. Reverence be to him.”
(The devotee here makes a rough image, of mud, of Mahadeo, and places it upon the singhasun; then throws over it some grains of raw rice, and white flowers of dhatoora, saying)—
4th verse. “O Soopan, approach! O Pinakadhur, be thou seated here!”
(Then putting in the urgha some raw rice, flowers, and sandal, and holding it between his hands, he stands up before the idol).
5th verse. “From three dreadful diseases thou art the deliverer; and thou bestowest happiness on mankind. Receive my offerings, and preserve me from these three afflictions. Be merciful to my sons and daughters; and may they find grace before thee, O Bhooswamin.”
(He pours out the contents of the urgha upon the image; then, dipping his fourth finger in honey, he touches the image: then, sprinkling the water over it, he performs the ceremony of ablution upon the idol. First he pours curds over it, then water, then melted butter (ghee), then water, then honey; water again, then milk; and finally, the five things together, and then washes out the whole with pure water. He then dresses the idol, and wraps an additional covering round it; and, throwing the jeneo over its shoulders, says)—
“The Yagnopaveet (the brahmanic thread) is a sign of holiness: it was brought from the heart of Brahma. He who wears it lives to a great age. Put away, then, all other works, O man! and invest thy body with the jeneo, for it bringeth light and strength.”
(He then presents sandal, raw rice, areka-nuts, and the flowers thereof). “Thou art fruit in thyself; and thou bringest forth good fruit in them that worship thee. Thou art born of the genius Brihasput.”
(He offers the sooparee (areka-nuts), and the flowers and leaves of the bale-tree; then the artee of eleven lamps. He next places sweetmeats before the image; then pours out some water before it. Laying down some leaves of betel, and some coins, he takes up rice in one hand, whilst with the other he throws a few grains upon the image, from time to time repeating the following):
“Aghor, I offer thee this! Pusooput, receive this! Bhyrav, I present thee this! Kupurdee, accept this! Isa, I offer thee this! Maheswar, accept my offering!” (Then taking up more rice he says)—

“O thou who art in thyself earth, water, fire, wind, and the firmament, accept my offerings, and be merciful unto me! Shiva and Parbutee, have mercy upon me, and preserve me from all the evils of this life!”
(Joining his hands in supplication, he says)—
“Manifold are my sins; and I am ignorant of thy true worship. Neither do I know how to invoke thee, nor to sing thy praise, nor any single form of thy worship. As such have mercy upon me, and forgive my sins.
“He who shall chaunt thy praise when the day dawns shall obtain forgiveness for the sins of the past night. He who prays unto thee at mid-day, his sins, from his birth, shall be washed away; and he who worshippeth thee at the close of the day shall be purified from the sins of seven births. Even as the gift of five millions of milch-cows to as many Brahmins is propitious to the donor, and good in thy sight, so may this humble offering of thy servant find favour before thee.”
(Then joining his hands again, he says)—
“O Hur, O Maheswar, O Sambhu, O Shiva, O Pusooput, Mahadeo, reverence be to thee!”
(Then taking up some raw rice and water in the palm of his hand he presents it to the image, concluding)— “Accept this, O Deity; and give success to all my undertakings, and realize all the desires of my heart!”

Plate XVII

.POOJA TO DEVEE (SHIO SHIVA).


FROM Devee the Hindoo prays for the fulfilment of all his wishes. In this Pooja a book, called the Markundeya Pooran, is placed before him upon a red cloth, which serves as a case for the book when put by. A few blades of the dhoop ghas (hay), some red flowers, and sandal, rice, betel-leaves, and cloves, are placed upon the book, which remains closed. The worshipper sits cross-legged, the two heels and soles of the feet turned upwards, as illustrated in this Plate (a painful and difficult position); and with joined hands, having made his petition to the Deity, he performs the figures of the six Moodras contained in Plate 18, called Kurunnyas in the Gayatri; and then the Hridayadi’nyas, as in Plate 19. This is the sign worn in the worship of Devee between the two eyebrows, of red sandal: the Sputikmala, or string of crystal beads, is worn round the neck.
TRANSLATION OF THE VERSION IN THE DEVEE POOJA.
FROM THE MARKUNDEYA POORAN.
1st verse. “Markundeya saith, ‘O Brahma! I beseech thee, instruct thy servant in that most secret prayer which will promote the welfare and happiness of mankind,’ and by whom it was repeated.
2d verse. “Brahma answered and said, ‘O Brahmin! O mighty Jogi! the secrets that I shall disclose unto thee for the salvation of man is the secret prayer to Devee, for she is holy. Hearken unto my words.’
3d verse. “Her titles are, Sylapootree[1], Brahmacharnee[2], Chundraghunta[3], Kokmunda[4], Scunda-Mata[5], Katyáyani[6], Kalaratree[7], Maha Gauri[8], Siddhada[9], Doorga[10]. These are her attributes: by these shalt thou do her worship.
1. Daughter of the hills.
2. T Virgin.
3. T Like the moon-bell.
4. T Pumpkin-faced.
5. T Mother of Scunda.
6. T Katyáyani.
7. T Midnight.
8. T Great Gauri, or fair complexioned.
9. T Granter of success.
10. T Difficult of access.
6th verse. “He who shall offer her thanksgiving and praise, and worship her, shall surely be great.
7th verse. “Call ye upon these names in the field of battle, and ye shall surely conquer. Evil shall ever after flee from thee, and thou shalt be happy. 8th verse. “Chamunda mounts upon a corpse, Varáhee upon a buffalo; Aindri is seated upon an elephant, and Vaishnavee upon a pelican.

Plate XVIII

KUANYASA

in the Gavatri Devee Pooja

Plate XIX

HRIDAYADI HYASA

1 – Hridayaya Nama – 2 – Netrabhyam Nama – 3 – Sirshaya Nama – 4 – Sikhaya Nama – 5 – Kuchaya Nama- 6 – Stra – Ai – Put

Plate XX

POOJA TO SOORYA (SUN).


The image of the sun, engraved on a silver plate, is placed in a Sumput (a wide copper vessel); raw rice, coloured with red sandal, some sandal, and red flowers, dhoop ghas, betel-leaves, areca-nut, red silk, the junes, dyed red, and all the brass vessels, images, &c., as daily used at their religious ceremonies. The Devotee stands upon one leg, the right foot against the left thigh, the heel turned outwards, and holding in his hands a brass cuttora (cup), containing a smaller one made of meal-dough, filled with ghee (melted butter), with a lighted wick placed in the middle. The sign worn in this Pooja is this . The lines are drawn with sandal, and the spot in the middle with vermillion. A crystal necklace is also worn in this Poojah.
TRANSLATION OF THE POOJA OF SOORYA.
ORIGINAL VERSION FROM THE BHAVISHYOTTARA POORAN.
[Presenting the Urgha, and joining his hands.]
1st verse. “O thou of a thousand rays! O thou great, thou powerful luminary, supporter of the universe! I bow before thee, and worship thee with the Urgha: receive my offering, O god of light!
2d verse. O Bhanu! thou who art immortal! the heavens, the earth, water, and fire, all proclaim and own thy power and greatness! Behold, I prostrate myself before thee, and present the offering of the Urgha! May it be acceptable to thee!
3d verse. “All that offer up thanksgiving to thee shall possess wealth and greatness, were his birth renewed a thousand times over!
4th verse. “Thou shinest upon the earth (in all the twelve months of the year) under the names of—
5th verse. “Aditya, Divakara, Bhaskar, Prabhakar, Huridaswa, Trailokya-lochana.
6th verse. “Mihira, Ravi, Dwijakara, Dwadsatmaka, Trimoortee, Soorya
SUN PRESIDING OVER
1. T March.
2. T April.
3. T May.
4. T June.
5. T July.
6. T August.
7. T September.
8. T October.
9. T November.
10. T December.
11. T January.
12. T February.

Plate XXI

POOJA TO GUNESH.

IN this worship vermillion (sindoor), red sandal, raw rice, koosgrass, red flowers, bale-leaves, areka-nuts, betel-leaves, and treacle, are presented. A string of red flowers is thrown round the neck of the image of Gunesh, which is of red stone, occasionally black, and of brass. The sign worn in this
Pooja is this , drawn with red vermillion; and a necklace of the seeds of the lotus is worn round the neck.
TRANSLATION OF THE POOJA OF GUNESH.
The Poorans, Shastra, and Tuntra, enjoin three forms of worship.
1st verse. “Gunesh has twelve titles—Soomookh[1], Ek-dunt[2], Kupil[3], Gujkurnika[4], Lumbodur[5], Baikrit[6], Bipudnas[7], Binayak[8], Dhoomraketoo[9], Balachundra[10], Gujanun[11], Gunadisha[12].
2d verse. “Whosoever shall worship thee in these twelve titles, and whosoever shall attend and hearken to these names, shall surely be prosperous in
this world.
3d verse. “Whosoever shall repeat these twelve names on the day of marriage or birth, or on proceeding on a journey, on going to battle, or in sickness,
and on entering a new habitation, shall surely be delivered from all the evils of this life.
4th verse. “O Bakratunda[13]! O Maha Kaya[14]! thy face is resplendent, like a thousand suns! O Deo, prosper all my undertakings!
1. ↑ The beautiful.
2. ↑ Single-toothed.
3. ↑ Red and yellow complexioned.
4. ↑ Elephant-eared.
5. ↑ Corpulent.
6. ↑ Mis-shapen.
7. ↑ Deliverer from evil.
8. ↑ The leader.
9. ↑ Smoke-bannered.
10. ↑ Young moon.
11. ↑ Elephant-visaged.
12. ↑ Chief of the bands of demigods.
13. ↑ Elephant-trunked.
14. ↑ Bulky-Form.
5th verse. (Joining his hands, he says)—”O, thou bulky and low of stature, thine head is like the elephant’s! Thine ambrosial breath attracts the winged insects of the air to hover about thy balmy lips. Thy tusk is so formidable, that thou slayest with one stroke the enemies of them that worship thee. Vermillion is upon thy brow. Thou art the adopted son of Devee; and thou art ever liberal in thy gifts. 6th verse. “Such art thou, Gunesh! behold, I bow to thee! for thou art beautiful, being yellow in colour; and thou hast three eyes. 7th verse. (Presenting the lighted artee in circular motion before the idol)—”Thou art corpulent; thou art the ruler of the universe; and thou art the adopted son of Parbuttee. O Deo, deliver us from evils! Deity, deliver us!

Plate XXII

POOJA TO HUNOOMAN


HUNOOMAN was born on a Saturday, and took his seat, for the first time, in the Council of War on a Tuesday: on the same day he was first worshipped. The Brahmin, having terminated his devotions, repeats the Sundhya, and one thousand verses of the Gayatri: he bathes the Idol; and mixing up some vermilion and ghee, he smears the image all over with it: then places before it his offering of rice, sweetmeats, boiled gram, cocoa-nut, bale-leaves, red flowers, chikor-leaves, dhoopghass (hay), betel-leaves, and areeka-nuts. A small cake of flour and treacle is placed in the bottom of a kutora, over which the Devotee pours water from an abkhora with a brass spoon. The lighted artee, and all brass vessels, as in the other Poojas. He then joins his hands, and repeats the following
TRANSLATION OF THE POOJA OF HUNOOMAN.
1st verse. “Thou art swifter in thy movements than thought; and thou out-runnest the winds! Thou art wiser than wisdom itself; and thou ravishest all our senses! Thou art born of the winds; and thou art the king of the monkeys, and the favourite of Rama! Such art thou, O Hunooman! Reverence be to thee!
2d verse. “Thou hast not thy equal in this world for strength! Thy body shineth like burnished gold! Thou canst burn the Daityas to ashes; and thou art superior in all knowledge and wisdom.
3d verse. “Reverence to thee, O Hunooman! Deliver me from the power of evil-workers and evil-thinkers; and from the power of necromancers deliver me! Deliver me!
4th verse. “Preserve me from sickness, want, and all the evils of this life. Deliver me! Deliver me! 5th verse. “O thou of five faces! Ram Chunder is thy god, and Unjunee is thy mother! Preserve me!”
The worshipper here makes the signs with his fingers of the Unga-nyás, as repeated in the Sundhya; then the Hridayadinyas: then closing his eyes, and folding his arms, he repeats the following:—
6th verse. “O son of Unjunee and Vayoo, the god of the winds! Thy strength is great, above all things in nature! Thou art the deliverer of Seeta. Thou art the destroyer of Lunka. Thou art the friend of Urjoon. Thy voice is so powerful, that it resounds throughout the universe; and thou canst leap over seven seas: thine eyes are yellow: thou worshippest the sun. Thou art the preserver of Ungud, Lukshmun, and the monkey-army. Thou art the defeater of Rawan; and thou givest delight to Rama and Seeta. One of thy visages is black: it looks towards the east. The one to the south is yellow; the western one is red; thy northern one is green; and thy fifth face looks up to heaven: is white!

Plate XXIII

PUNCH AGNEE (PENANCE BY THE HEAT OF FIVE FIRES)


THIS is among the various penances performed by the Hindoo Devotees, annually during the three hottest months, April, May, and June. Within a square space, of about 212 or 3 feet, he seats himself upon a small mat, cross-legged, as illustrated in this Plate, with the Pooran in his hand, which he continues to read during three hours, retaining the same posture immovably the whole time, whilst the fierce rays of the mid-day sun dart upon his bare head. Four fires, consisting of as many piles of dried cow-dung (commonly called Kund), and placed in the four corners of the mat, are kept up in full blaze. These fires produce a very ardent flame, and, consequently, an almost insupportable heat. The penitent does not shave during the whole of this probationary period, viz. three months. “Punch Agnee” signifies “Five Fires:” the Sun, above the head of the Devotee, is considered the fifth.

Plate XXIV

MARKS WORN BY THE BRAHMINS


The high caste of Brahmins, who officiate as High Priests in the Temples of the Devtas, follow strictly and minutely every article enjoined by their Shastres and Poorans. The marks worn by them are only six, as illustrated in the annexed Plate.

MAHA DEVA (on the left) VISHNOO (on the right)

SOORYA (on the left) GUNESH (on the right)

DEVEE (on the left) HUNOUMAN (o the right)

The ornaments, likewise, appertain to the Pooja of each particular Deity. The marks worn by the Brahmins being distinct and few, they evidently demonstrate what Divinity he has worshipped on that day; but the other castes, such as Chuttree, Byse, and Kaiyat, have marks so varied and numerous, each according to the whim or fancy of the wearer, that it is very difficult to trace what Divinity he has worshipped on that day, being a complication of signs appertaining to the worship of two or three different Gods, or Saints, at the same time. The Jogees, especially, are covered, all over the body, with various signs, drawn with white sandal, or simply with rivermud; sometimes with vermilion, or with black and yellow earth; all of which contribute not a little to their hideous, as well as grotesque appearance. The marks enjoined by their Shastres are four in number: these are put on immediately after ablution, by the four respective castes: viz. the Brahmin wears it thus , perpendicularly on the forehead, between the brows, marked with white sandal or earth; the Chutriyas thus , horizontally across the forehead, with the same; the Byse thus , erect in front of the forehead; the Soodra, a round white spot, as large as a shilling-piece, between the eyebrows. These are worn during the performance of the Sundhya, and are washed off, to be replaced by those appertaining to the Deity the votary intends worshipping that day.

***


Naradevi Shri Shwetkali (Dyatbhulu) Ajatra of Devi – 2076

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

***

THE MASKING TRADITION IN TRIBAL

INDIA & HIMALAYA

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/mask-the-masking-tradition-in-tribal-india-and-himalaya/

no 11

***

Nyatabhulu Ajima

ङ्यतभुलुु अजिमा, नरदेवी श्री श्वेतकली, ङ्यत त्वा:

Naradevi

Nardevi is situated at Kathmandu, North of the Basantapur near Chhetrapati.

Photo Credit of @nyata.bhulu.ajima  · Community

We continue our research within the varied universe of popular masks of the Himalayan and Indian region, dedicating ourselves today to the interesting festival of Naradevi Shri Shwetkali (Dyatbhulu) Ajatra of Devi – (2076) in which, up to 20 masks are danced .

श्री श्वेताकली (नगायतभुलु आजिमा) देविनाच जात्रा, 12 वर्ष – स्थान: श्री श्वेताकाली देवी घर, न्यात्पाचो नरदेवी – Photo Credit Updating in Progress – Composition by Ethnoflorence

As always, in addition to a description of the festival, we will focus on the identification of individual iconographic characters.

***

The establishment of Shri Naradevi temple is estimated to have taken place in the time of Gunakamdev and likewise Shri Naradevi’s Devinach festival appears to have started in the time of Amar Malla. Amar Malla initiated various processions and dances of gods and goddesses.
There is a tradition of performing Shri Devinach at Devi’s Dowli in Naradevi every year on the day the goddess is seen as a great day for the salvation of the world. Likewise, every 12 years, there is a tradition of holding a special Devinach festival of Shri, according to which, on the eve of Pahanchhe, the main temple of the ancient inner city under Devi Marg, Ngyatbhulu Azima Dya: starts from Ngatpacho – Naradevi – Tengal – Nhya: Kha – Thaymadu – Nhaykantala – Asan – Balkumari Janabahal – Indrachok – Makhan – Hanumandhoka Darwar – Maru – Chikanmugal – Jaishideval – Kohiti – Bhimsensthan – Kashtmandap – Pyafal – Yatkha – Nardevi return.
Therefore, after the start of the 12-year Devinach festival, it is customary to perform the Devinach in 12 different locations, including the various ancient Kathmandu dablos and the original dablis of the ancient kingdoms of Mallakalin, in the states of Lalitpur, Kirtipur, Bhaktapur and Banepa. In this regard, this time the Devinach festival, which lasts 12 years, started from Chaitra 2078 BS. Based on this, Devi’s city round will take place on the 13th of Chaitra. According to the Devinach tradition, Devinach was performed in other places mentioned in the next few years. 12-year-old Devinach Jatra, protected by the President since time immemorial, begins with a formal procession around the city after direct darshan and worship. Likewise, there is a tradition of receiving direct offerings and Goddess offerings from the President during Devinach’s senior year celebrations. In this way, there is a belief that Naradevi’s vision will also fulfill the wishes of devotees. Likewise, there is a belief that performing the Naradevi dance will lead to good health and a simple, successful life with a feeling of peace of mind and happiness.

Photo Credit Updating in Progress – Composition by Ethnoflorence


Source of information = Naradevi Shri Shwetakali Conservation and Management Society

A three pagoda-shaped temples with a gold-plated roof and its handcrafted pillars indicating the Temple of Nardevi. The temple was founded by Gunakamadev in the 9th century AD. . According to a legend, the temple was discovered by one of the kings of Patan during a visit to Kathmandu during a hunting trip, who, having lost himself in the neighboring forest, hid there, then passed out. When the King awoke he found himself in front of the goddess Swetakali, thatI heped him, and once returned to his kingdom, he erected the temple of Nardevi, similarly it is believed that two other kings of Bhaktapur were blessed by the same goddess who led them to return to make a new temple and establish a committee to deal with it. One of the kings also began the ceremony of lighting the clarified butter lamps and sacrificing a sheep. This ritual is performed by the Kumhale clan of potters of Thimi, who are in Bhaktapur to commemorate the goddess. The main deity of Nardevi is SWETKALI. SWETA means white color in Sanskrit which represents Calm and Relaxed, while KALI represents the power of the devil, an authorized God who has achieved victory over evil. Thus the name SWETKALI itself describes as an empowered God at the same time, a calm and relaxed God who has taken the tutelage of the human being. The Swekali is also known as Nyata Bhulu Ajima from the Newar, while some inscriptions refer to the goddess as “Said communities swori”. Nardevi is also considered to be the mother of the goddess Kumari, Chandeswori Bhagawati, and legends state that human sacrifices were conducted in this temple. Later it was stopped by providing a worship along with Pancha Bali instead. The Temple mainly have three silvers statues of Swetkali, Indrayeni & Barahi and the locals believe that the original home of the goddess still exists in this area, which is known as “Dyo Chen“ is mean god’s house where all her ornaments and clothes are secured. 

Source Nyatabhulu Ajima ङ्यतभुलुु अजिमा, नरदेवी श्री श्वेतकली, ङ्यत त्वा: Naradevi @nyata.bhulu.ajima  · Community

***

Sri Nyatabhulu Ajima

(ङtabhulu – Naradevi – Svetkali)

Photo Credit Updating in Progress – Composition by Ethnoflorence

श्री न्यतभुलु अजिमा (ङतभुलु – नरदेवी – श्वेतकाली)

Photo Credit Updating in Progress – Composition by Ethnoflorence

Photo Credit Updating in Progress – Composition by Ethnoflorence

***

Shri Mahalakshmi श्री महालक्ष्मी

Photo Credit Updating in Progress – Composition by Ethnoflorence

Photo Credit Updating in Progress – Composition by Ethnoflorence

Photo Credit Updating in Progress – Composition by Ethnoflorence

***

Shri Byaghrini (Vyangini)

श्री ब्याघ्रिनी ( व्याङ्गिनी)

Photo Credit Updating in Progress – Composition by Ethnoflorence

***

Shri Brahmayani श्री ब्रम्हायणी

Photo Credit Updating in Progress – Composition by Ethnoflorence

***

Rudrayani श्री रुद्रायणी

Photo Credit Updating in Progress – Composition by Ethnoflorence

***

Chandi श्री चण्डी

Photo Credit Updating in Progress – Composition by Ethnoflorence

***

Shree Narayani श्री नारायणी

Photo Credit Updating in Progress – Composition by Ethnoflorence

***

Shree Singhinee श्री सिंघिनी

Photo Credit Updating in Progress – Composition by Ethnoflorence

***

Shri Ganesh श्री गणेश

Photo Credit Updating in Progress – Composition by Ethnoflorence

***

Mr. Indrayani श्री इन्द्रायणी

Photo Credit Updating in Progress – Composition by Ethnoflorence

***

Barahi श्री बाराही

Photo Credit Updating in Progress – Composition by Ethnoflorence

Photo Credit Updating in Progress – Composition by Ethnoflorence

***

Shri Bhairav श्री भैरव I

Photo Credit Updating in Progress – Composition by Ethnoflorence

*** *** ***

Masks of Himachal Pradesh Project

1-5

a new Ethnoflorence project aimed at identifying the different masks present in the local Pagli festivals.

Fera Phera or Parikrama Fagli in the Anni Tehsil of Kullu district Ladhagi लढ़ागी, Banas बनास, Rumali, Lafali and Buchhair Villages – Kali Naag Temple PART I – पलदी फागली / PALDI FAGLI Malana मलाणा Village मलाना हिल्स हिमाचल Harlala Mask Dance Festival / PALDI FAGLI पलदी फागली Rumsu रुम्सू Village Naggar Tehsil Kullu District – Himachal Pradesh / PALDI FAGLI PANJAJN VALLEY पंजें / FAGLI KARTHA NAG TEMPLE 2022 पलदी फागली 2022 पारंपरिक त्यौहार पुराने रीति-रिवाजों के साथ मनाया जाता है

Within a larger project dedicated to identifying the materials (masks) used in the different traditional masked festivals of the Himalayan and Indian area.

THE MASKING TRADITION IN TRIBAL INDIA AND HIMALAYA PROJECT

https://ethnoflorence.wordpress.com/category/mask-the-masking-tradition-in-tribal-india-and-himalaya/

no 1 -11

1 Masks of the Uttarakhand A Living Tradition – HillJatra Masks in Pithoragarh – 2 Bikhoti (बिखोती) Bhotiya Ritual Dance Mask Festival of Lata village – Nanda Devi National Park in the Chamoli District , Uttarakhand – 3 Uttarakhand Saloor Dungra (twin) Villages Ramman Religious Masked Festival and Ritual Theatre of Garhwal – 4 Gavari Festival Ecstatic Theater Performance Mewar region of Rajasthan – 5 Bhari Gan Masked Ritual Theater Festival – Pati-Rabha Community Assam – 6 Gomira Masks Dance of Kusmandi Area – Dakshin Dinajpur District West Bengal – 7 Raban Kata, Masked Dance – Bishnupur – Bankura District – West Bengal – 8 Raj Gond Dandari – Ghusadi Adilabad district Telangana Festival Ritual Dance गुसाडी दंडार – 9 Bohada Festival – बोहड़ा उत्सव – महाराष्ट्र Maharasthra Thane District – 10 Shikali Jatra kokhana Newari Town in Lalitpur Kathmandu Valley Nepal -11 Naradevi Shri Shwetkali (Dyatbhulu) Ajatra of Devi

***

PAGLI OF KHUN खून Masks in Anni Tehsil in Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh State, India Part I

ETHNOFLORENCE

INDIAN AND HIMALAYAN

FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS

***

(A)

CULTURAL EVENTS

PAGLI OF KHUN खून

Khun is a small Village in Anni Tehsil in Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh State, India

PART I

MASKS

“A-B-C-D-E-F”

Tom van Groeningen in his “Pagli of Khun”, published on Arch.com, wrote detailed information on this festival, accompanying his essay with interesting photographs taken on the site:

https://himalaya-arch.com/images/archive-photo/Phagli_Khun.concept.pdf .

Some scenes of the festival have also been documented by Tom van Groeningen through films, shot, in the course of the Pagli development.

From a careful examination of this and other documentary materials on video it is possible to understand how in the Khun village’s festival, it’s ‘danced’ an interesting group of (around) 20 wooden masks, some of them cyclically repainted, that seems that have been acted in recent years in different nearby areas.

All the wooden masks that recur in the various villages over the course of several years are reproduced here in detail, allowing an overall look, from which to understand their iconographic characteristics.

Parkhol Fagli Masks Group in an Overall View

Parkhol Fagli masks 2020 – Photo Credit Updating in Progress

**

It should be noted that the two character in the photo below, central to the representation, are excluded from the iconographic description of the wooden masks, since they are not made of wood (while the dark one seems to be made of plastic).

Photo Credit of Tom van Groeningen https://himalaya-arch.com/…/arc…/Phagli_Khun.concept.pdf

*

Parkhol Fagli Masks

“A – B – C -D -E”

Parkhol Fagli masks 2020 A – B – C – D – E – Photo Credit Updating in Progress

Parkhol Fagli Mask “A”

This mustachioed men’s two-tone mask is shown in the photo below (left 2020) in the chromatic version before its repaint (right 2022). The white background has been refreshed (the previous version had lost some of the color – especially in the lower part of the face – where the photo on the left highlights the natural wood color). The face of the mask ’emerges’ from the recurring and characteristic rectangular flat structure, which enhances the rounded shapes of the forehead, of the bold vertical combination of the eyebrows – eyes – nose – cheeks, which ends with a sort of semi-horizontal cut that divides spatially the upper area of the mask from the lower one, in which the mouth area, made with 14 holes, tends to coincide with that of the chin.

On the left – Parkhol Fagli mask A & F 2020 – On the right Mask A 2022 Photo Credit Updating in Progress

The stylistic rendering of the mouth, perforated with 14 holes, makes this mask very interesting from a documentary and iconographic point of view.

Carried on a pole by the rest of the masks, this mask wears a turban during the performances

On the left & and on the right on a pole wearing a turban – Parkhol Fagli mask A 2020 – Photo Credit Updating in Progress

On the right wearing a turban – Parkhol Fagli mask A 2020 – On the Right Parkhol Fagli mask D- Photo Credit Updating in Progress

Parkhol Fagli Mask “B”

Two-tone male mask with a white background, it is less schematic and more rounded than mask A – the stylistic rendering of the mouth with two alternating chromatic tones mimics the perforation of mask A.

Parkhol Fagli mask A & B 2020 – Photo Credit Updating in Progress

The comparative side view of mask A and B in the photo below highlights the less schematic and more naturalistic character of mask B compared to mask A.

We will talk about the comparison between mask A – F & T later.

Parkhol Fagli mask A – F & B 2020 – Photo Credit Updating in Progress

***

Parkhol Fagli Mask “C”

The general structure is similar to that of Mask A, but Mask C looks more rounded than the first. Two-tone with a white background like masks A & B, mask C has a rendering of the lower part of the mouth, similar to that of mask A, but it differs from it being perforated at the correspondence of the teeth but open in the center of the mouth.

On the left Parkhol Fagli mask C 2020 & and on the right on a pole wearing a turban – Parkhol Fagli mask A 2020 – Photo Credit Updating in Progress

***

Parkhol Fagli Mask “D”

Divided into two sections – upper and lower – this male (?) two-tone mask with a white background has a structure similar to that of mask A and C. In the lower part, the mustache and beard cover the mouth from which a red tongue protrudes.

Parkhol Fagli mask B – C & D 2020 – Photo Credit Updating in Progress

***

Parkhol Fagli Mask “E”

Two-tone zoomorphic mask, with a naturalistic appearance, with a white background, represents the mask of a wolf (?) in the interpretation of the local artist who has applied the typical iconographic characters of the region to this manufacture, connoting and typifying it.

Parkhol Fagli mask B – C – D & E 2020 – Photo Credit Updating in Progress

***

Parkhol Fagli Masks

“T & F (for comparasion) – G – H”

Parkhol Fagli mask T & F (for comparasion) – G – D & H 2020 – Photo Credit Updating in Progress

Parkhol Fagli Mask “F”

Masks T & F have a structure, frame, on a flat rectangular base, similar to that of mask A, but they differs from it by the absence of the two front sections (upper and lower) divided spatially by a semi-horizontal line under the nose; in these masks this effect is obtained through a chromatic contrast resulting from the contrast of the light brown color of the cheeks – eyes – nose – of the upper part with the dark one of the mustache and the white one of the lower part.

The difference in structure is evident if you compare the two A & F masks, represented side by side in the photo below.

Parkhol Fagli mask A & F 2020 – Photo Credit Updating in Progress

The stylistic rendering of the mouth, is open, with the teeth outlined in chromatically red.

During the performances, Mask F wears a turban, in front of Mask A, which, as already mentioned, is also decorated with a turban (in this and other parts of the festival).

Parkhol Fagli masks, on the left Mask B & F – on the right Mask D & A – 2020 – Photo Credit Updating in Progress

Side view of the B – F with a turban & C masks

Parkhol Fagli masks, from the Mask B – F – C – 2020 – Photo Credit Updating in Progress

***

PART II

Coming Soon

***

Masks of Himachal Pradesh Project

is a new Ethnoflorence project aimed at identifying the different masks present in the local Pagli festivals.

Fera Phera or Parikrama Fagli in the Anni Tehsil of Kullu district Ladhagi लढ़ागी, Banas बनास, Rumali, Lafali and Buchhair Villages – Kali Naag Temple PART I – पलदी फागली / PALDI FAGLI Malana मलाणा Village मलाना हिल्स हिमाचल Harlala Mask Dance Festival / PALDI FAGLI पलदी फागली Rumsu रुम्सू Village Naggar Tehsil Kullu District – Himachal Pradesh / PALDI FAGLI PANJAJN VALLEY पंजें / FAGLI KARTHA NAG TEMPLE 2022 पलदी फागली 2022 पारंपरिक त्यौहार पुराने रीति-रिवाजों के साथ मनाया जाता है

Within a larger project dedicated to identifying the materials (masks) used in the different traditional masked festivals of the Himalayan and Indian area.

THE MASKING TRADITION IN TRIBAL INDIA AND HIMALAYA PROJECT

no 1 – 10

Photo Credit Updating in Progress – Photo Composition by Ethnoflorence

1 Masks of the Uttarakhand A Living Tradition – HillJatra Masks in Pithoragarh – 2 Bikhoti (बिखोती) Bhotiya Ritual Dance Mask Festival of Lata village – Nanda Devi National Park in the Chamoli District , Uttarakhand – 3 Uttarakhand Saloor Dungra (twin) Villages Ramman Religious Masked Festival and Ritual Theatre of Garhwal – 4 Gavari Festival Ecstatic Theater Performance Mewar region of Rajasthan – 5 Bhari Gan Masked Ritual Theater Festival – Pati-Rabha Community Assam – 6 Gomira Masks Dance of Kusmandi Area – Dakshin Dinajpur District West Bengal – 7 Raban Kata, Masked Dance – Bishnupur – Bankura District – West Bengal – 8 Raj Gond Dandari – Ghusadi Adilabad district Telangana Festival Ritual Dance गुसाडी दंडार – 9 Bohada Festival – बोहड़ा उत्सव – महाराष्ट्र Maharasthra Thane District – 10 Shikali Jatra kokhana Newari Town in Lalitpur Kathmandu Valley Nepal –

***