MALAYANS DEVIL DANCERS CASTE OF EXORCISTS in CASTES AND TRIBES OF SOUTHERN INDIA EDGAR THURSTON 1909 INDIA TRIBAL ART

 

TRIBAL ART TRIBAL ART INDIA INDIAN TRIBAL ART.jpg

CASTES AND TRIBES
OF
SOUTHERN INDIA

BY
EDGAR THURSTON

GOVERNMENT PRESS

MADRAS

1909

TRIBAL ART TRIBAL ART INDIA TRIBAL ART.jpg

 

INDIA INDIAN INDIA MASK INDIA TRIBAL ART.jpg

The Malayans are a makkathayam caste, found in North Malabar, their name, signifying hill-men,
They are divided into nine exogamous illams, five of which have the names Kotukudi, Velupa,
Cheni, Palankudi, and Kalliath.

The men do not shave their heads, but allow the hair to grow long, and either part it in the middle,
or tie it into a knot behind, like the castes of the east coast, or tie it in a knot in front in
the genuine Malayali fashion.

THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF THE CASTE IS THE EXORCISM, WHICH THEY PERFORM BY VARIOUS METHODS.

If any one is considered to be possessed by demons, it is usual, after consulting the astrologer
in order to detect what MURTI or demon is causing the trouble, to call in the Malayan, who performs
a ceremony known as TIYATTAM , in which they WEAR MASKS, and, so disguised, sing, dance, tom-tom, and
play on a rude and strident pipe.

Like the Nalkes and Paravas of South Canara, the Malayans exorcise various kinds of devils, with appropriate
disguises.

The exorcism consists in drawing complicated designs of squares, circles, and triangles, on the ground with white,
black, and yellow flour. While the man who has assumed the disguise dances about to the accompaniment of drums,
songs are sung by Malayan men and women.

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INDIAN FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS BIBLIOGRAPHY

Journal Articles

1 Kochar, V K
A note on some Drawings by Onge of Little Andaman.
BULLETEIN OF THE CULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, 4(1-2),
1965: 25-26
Tribes; Tribes-Onge; Tribal Drawing Art-Onge; Onge-Little Andaman.
Sarkar, Sabita Ranjan
On the Study of Primitive Art in India.
BULLETEIN OF THE CULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, 7(1-2),
1968: 89-97
Primitive Art; Primitive Art in India; Anthropology; Tribal Art.
Mukerji, Sankarananda
Folklore of the Sundarban Tribes.
BULLETEIN OF THE CULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, 8(1-2),
1969: 97-100
Tribes-Sundarban; Folklore; Tribal Folklore; Folklore
Sundarban Tribes; Anthropology; Tribal Art and Recreation
Koppar, D. H.
Tribal art and its place in the enthnological museum.
THE EASTERN ANTHROPOLOGIST, 29(1), 1976: 91-99
Tribal art; enthnological museum.
Lochan, Pramila
The Kitab-I-Nauras: An Aesthete’s Tribute
KALA-THE JOURNAL OF INDIAN ART HISTORY CONGRESS, 3, 1996:116-118
Aesthetics; Art-Indian-History; Kitab-I-Nauras-Poetry-
Ibrahim Adil Shah II-Aesthetic tribute.
Bora, D K
The Wood Carvings of the Wanchos of Arunachal Pradesh.
KALA-THE JOURNAL OF INDIAN ART HISTORY CONGRESS, 4, 1997:86-88
Art-Indian-History; Tribal Art-Wanchos; Art-Wood Carving; Wood Carvings-Wanchos-Arunachal Pradesh.
Sisodia, Vishnudev N.
“Pancvi” the magicio: Religious art of the Varlis
THE EASTERN ANTHROPOLOGIST, 16(1), 1963: 47-52
Varlis tribe; religious art; Pancvi.
Aryan, Subhashini
Tribal art: Visual expressions of vivid tales
DISCOVER INDIA, 4(7), 1991: 10-13
Tribal art; Indian art.
Aryan, Subhashini
Expressions of tribal genius.
DISCOVER INDIA, 6(2), 1993: 46-49
Art-Himalayan tribes; craft-Himalayan tribes; tribal art-Himalaya.
Annapurna
Traditions and newer traditions.
DISCOVER INDIA, 11(12), 1998: 26-29
Tribal art-India; tradition-painting art.
Mohan, Kumud
A German tribute.
DISCOVER INDIA, 11(12), 1998: 72-74
Indian art; museum-Indian art-Berlin.
Chakravorty, Padmini
Social Structure of the Tribals of Tripura as reflected
through their Dances.
FOLKLORE, 228, 1979(February): 31-39 Vol 20 (2).
Folklore; Folk-Tribal Social Structure-Tripuri Tribe-
Dance; Folk-Dance-Social Structure-Tribe-Tripura; Folk
Dance-Social Structure-Tribe-Tripura; Folk Art-Dance-
Tripura Tribe-Social Structure.
Cranstone, Bryan
Three ‘tribal art’ sales.
ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY, 3(1-6), 1987: 19-20
Silver, Harry R
Beauty and the “I” of the Beholder: identity, asthetics,and social change among the Ashanti
JOURNAL OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL RESEARCH, 35(2), 1979(Summer):191-207
Anthropology; Tribal Identity; Tribal Visual Art- Modern Developments; African Tourist Arts; Ethnography;
Triabal Art-Modernisation-Ashanti; Ashanti; Tourist Art;Tribal Study; .
Aryan, Subhashini
Tribal art of India.
INDIAN AND FOREIGN REVIEW, 22(19), 1985: 23-26
ribal art-India; art.
Maiti, Sameera
Tribal arts and crafts: A study among the Tharu of Uttar Pradesh
INDIAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, 31(2), 2001: 69-74
Anthropology; tribal arts; tribe-Uttaer Pradesh; craft art-Tharu-Uttar Pradesh; Tharu-Uttar Pradesh.
Jain, Jyotindra
Tribal crafts, and the case of Mohammed and the mountain.
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 4(3), 1984: 74-75  Art; craft.
Jain, Jyotindra
Painted myths of creation: The art and ritual of a Indian tribe
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 5(2), 1985: 20-29
Tribal art; art-tribe-India; ritual-tribe-India;tribals.
Control No. : 57630
Chakraverty, Somnath
Wall embellishments: Tribal murals of Chhotanagpur
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 6(2), 1986: 22-27
Tribal murals-Chhotanagpur; tribal art; art; paintings tribals-Chhotanagpur; wall paintings.
Tiwari, Jyotsna
Beliefs, traditions, needs…: Perpetuating the rural art of terracotta
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 6(5), 1986: 62-64
Rural art; art; terracotta; tribal art.
Patil, Manisha
Bastar wood work.
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 7(4), 1987: 36-40
Craft; wood work-Bastar; tribal art-Bastar.
Hrahsel, Zothanpari
North eastern tribal art.
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 7(7), 1987: 78-85
Art; tribal art-north east.
Das, A. K.
A Naga warrior’s mask: A dilemma of authenticity
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 11(12), 1991: 82-83
Tribal art; Naga mask; mask.
Das, A. K.
Commercialisation of tribal art.
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 12(3), 1992: 80-81
** Tribal art.
Thiagarajan, K. M.
Tribal art: Beyond the mask of civilisation
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 12(4), 1992: 18-31
** Art; tribal art-India; tribals.
Nath, Tribhuvan
A prophetic world.
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 13(9), 1993: 54-61
Art; S. S. Bhatti, painter.
The magical script.
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 14(7), 1994: 52-59
Art; tribal art; art-Hill Korwa.
Tribal magic.
INSIDE OUTSIDE, 186, 2000: 36-37
Tribal art; interior decoration.
Dimitriadis, George
Hellenic rock art: State of art, open questions and new paradigms
MAN IN INDIA: A INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANTHROPOLOGY, 88
(2-3), 2008: 449-458
Hellenic rock art; rock art.
Geismar, Haidy
What’s in a price?
JOURNAL OF MATERIAL CULTURE, 6(1), 2001: 25-47
Art market, auctions, price, tournament of value, tribal art.
Ghosh, Asok K . and Chakraverti, Somnath Genesis and change of tribal art- examples from west
Bengal.
INDIAN MUSEUM BULLETIN, 23-24, 1988-1989: 136-141
Oberoi, R. C., Sharma, A. K. and Sharma, S. K.
Environmental limitations, socio-economic status and
constraints of tribal economy in outer Himalayas – a
study of pangi.
JOURNAL OF HUMAN ECOLOGY, 5(1), 1994(January): 63-67
Environment, socio-economic structure, agriculture,
technology.
Tag, Hui, Das, A .K . and Pallabi, H .
Botanbical resources used in triditional wood carving
industry among the wancho tribe of Arunachal pradesh.
INDIAN JOURNAL OF TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE, 7(1), 2009
(January): 148-156
Traditional woodcarving industry , Botanical
resources, wancho community, Arunachal pradesh.
Gogoi, N . K .
Glimpses of social reality throuh tattoos of the wanchos
of Arunachal Pradesh.
JOURNAL OF INDIAN ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 41(03), 2008
(November): 291-297
Features of this issue.
KALORI: ROYAL SOUTH AUSTRALIAN SOCIETY OF ARTS JOURNAL,
26(2), 1988: 1-8
Mukherjee, Meera
Gharuas: A metal artisan group and their art
MAN IN INDIA, 54(4), 1974(Oct. – Dec.): 287-303
Annapurna
Traditions and bewer traditions.
DISCOVER INDIA, 11(12), 1998(December): 26-29
Tribal Art; Warli Painting; Painting; Gond-Painting;
Wall Painting; .
Mohan, Kumud
A german tribute.
DISCOVER INDIA, 11(12), 1998(December): 72-74
Indian Art; Traditional Art; ancient art.
Elwin, Verrier and Datta, Sudhindranath
The tribal art.
MARG, 5(4): 30-34
Tribal; tribal art; .
Imam, Bulu
Cultural spatial concepta implicit in tribal art and
identity in Hazaribagh district.
MAN IN INDIA, 73(2), 1993(June): 163-172
Jain, Jyotindra
Commercializing tribal art.
SEMINAR, 412, 1993(December): 43-44
Imam, Bulu
Tribal India speaks.
SUNDARAM: A MAGAZINE ON CONTEMPORARY ART, 2(2), 1989: 5-8
Art.
Abidi, Tanveer
Folk and tribal art.
SUNDARAM: A MAGAZINE ON CONTEMPORARY ART, 3(5-6), 1990: 37-38
Chakraverty, Somnath
Indigeenous tribal art: Strategy for consevation and promotion
JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 6(1-2), 2009(Jan. – D
ec.): 87-102
Loxley, Anne
Khovar d
reamings: Contemporary tribal art in South Bihar,India
ART ASIA PASIFIC, 18, 1998: 36-41
Art; Tribal art-Bihar.
Thomas, Nicholas
Islands of history: Reflections on two exhibitions of
Torres Strait islander culture
ART ASIA PASIFIC, 27, 2000: 70-77
Art; Tribal art-Torres Strait; Art-Torres Strait.
Schemes to preserve and promote tribal art and culture.
TRIBAL RESEARCH BULLETIN, 20(1), 1998(March): 37-38
Tribal development; Tribal arts; Tribal culture; art
and craft-tribes; .
Shukla, Shubhalakshmi
Bastar’s adivasi women and their art.
MARG, 56(2), 2004(December): 62-65
Art-Bastar; Tribal art-Bastar.
Sharma, Anjali and Sharma, Promila
Handloom weaving – state of art of tribes of kullu
valley, Himachal Pradesh, India.
STUDIES OF TRIBES AND TRIBALS, 7(2), 2009(December):
115-118
Craft; Woven; Shawls; Fabrication; Trade; Multinational..
Schemes of the Bihar state govt. submitted to tthe govt. of
India under art. 275 of constitution of India: For the
uplift of scheduled tribes during 1952-53
VANYAJATI, 1(3), 1953(July): 72-74
** Tribal development-Bihar.
Chakraverty, Somnath
Cultural configuration of rock art in Jharkhand: A
holistic approach.
PURAKALA: THE JOURNAL OF ROCK ART SOCIETY OF INDIA
(RASI), 11-12(1-2), 2001: 109-112
Nzunguba, Ibio
Portee socioartistique et magico-religieuse d’un art du
corps: La rondelle on bois inseree dans la levre de la
“Congolaise a plateau”
ANTHROPOS: INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF ETHNOLOGY AND
LINGUISTICS, 102(2), 2007: 389-401
Jain, Jyotindra
Sundaribai: Speaking with clay.
INTERNATIONAL GALLERI, 7(1), 2004: 39-44

Tribal Art & Craft – Books

Aryan, Subhashini
Unknown Masterpieces of Indian Folk & Tribal Art.– New
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Reference Orissa: Millennium Edition.– Bhubaneswar:
Enterprising Publishers. 677p.

Channa , Subhadra
Witchctaft and Black art Witchcraft and Sorcery in Tribal
Religion.– New Delhi: Cosmo Publications. 309p.

Tribal Religion And Economic Life.– New Delhi: Cosmo
Publications. 316 p

The Art & Crafts of Kondhs.– Bhubaneswar: Council of
Professional Social Workers. 184 p.

Borgohain, H.
Handloom and handicrafts of the ADIS.– Itanagar:
Directorate of Research Govt. of Arunachal Pradesh. 46
p. : ill. p

Agrawal, Ashvini
Sarupa Saurabhamrt: Tributes to Indology Prof. Lakshman
Sarup Centenary Volume.– New Delhi: Manjit Singh. 391 p

Topno, Sem
Musical culture of the munda tribe.– New Delhi: Concept
Publishing. 589 p

Indian Artisans:Social Institutions and Culture Values.–
Kalkata: ASI Govt. of India ministry of culture Dept. of
culture. xi,123 p

Theory and practice: essays presnted to gene weltfish.–
New York: Mouton Publishing. x,362 p.

Fuchs, Stephen
Bottom of Indian society: the harijan and other low
castes.– Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. vii, 325p.

Smith W. C.
Ao-Naga Tribes of Assam.– Delhi: Gian Publications.
xxvii,244 p.

Jerath, Ashok
The splendour of Himalayan Art and culture.– New Delhi:
Indus publishers. 167 p.; map;ill p

Towards a cultural policy.– Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.
viii, 286 p.

Das, S.T.
Tribal Life of North- Eastern India.– Delhi: Gian
Publishing. x, 317p.: ill. p

Sharma, Vijay Prakash
Hmars of Manipur: an anthropological exploration.– New
Delhi: Anmol Publications. x,124 p.: Plates p

Das, S.T.
Tribal development and socio-cultural matrix.– Delhi:
Kanishka Publishers Distributors. x,272 p.; plates p

Bose, Nirmal Kumar
Tribal life in India.– New Delhi: National Book Trust.
ix,82 p.; ill; plates 24 p

Barua, S. N.
Tribes of Indo – Burma Border ( a Socio – Cultural
history of the inhabitants of the Patkai Range).– New
Delhi: Mittal Publications. xv,411 p.; plates p

Baveja, J.D.
The land where the Bamboo flowers.– Gauhati: Publication
Board. 83 p.; plates p

Hasan, Amir
A Bunch of wild flowers and other articies.– Lucknow:
Ethnographic and Folk Culture Society. 189,ix,xii p.

Russell, R.V.
Tribes and castes of the Central provinces of India.–
Delhi: Cosmo. 4v.(426; 540; 608) p.: ill.: map

Kalita, Dhaneswar
Traditional performances of South Kamrup.– New Delhi:
Gian Publication House. x,82 p.: ill. p

Skeen, Andrew
Passing it on: short talks on tribal fighting on the
North West frontier of India.– New Delhi: Bhavana books
& Prints. 136p.

Chandorker, Manoj S.
Haemoglobin & our tribes: a state of art on tribal health
— Bhopal: The Society of Bionaturalists. 57p.:ill. p

Majumdar, D.N.
An introduction to social anthropology.– New Delhi:
National Publishing House. xii,307 p.

Vidyarthi, L. P.
Contribution to the development of anthropology.– New
Delhi: Concept. xxv,167 p.: ill. p

India: specially published for the festival of India in the
U. S. S. R.– New Delhi: Brijbasi. 235 p.: col. ill. p

Agrawala, P.K.
Study in Indian iconography.– Jaipur: Publication Scheme
158p.: ill. p

Tribal art: primitivism and modern relevance.– Bhubaneswar
: Working Artists Association of Orissa. 120 p.: ill p

Tiwari, Jyotsna
Traditions of terracotta art in Madhya Pradesh.– Delhi:
Pratibha Prakashan. xxiv, 116p.: ill. p

Welch, Stuart Cary
India: art and culture, 1300-1900.– New York:
Metropolitan Museum of Art. 477 p.: plates p

Goodall, Edward A.
Sketches of Amerindian tribes 1841-1843.– Guyana:
British Museum. 88 p.: ill. p

Koppar, D. H.
Tribal art of dangs.– Baroda: Department of Museums.
xx,166 p.: ill. p

Gillon, Werner
Collecting African art.– London: MaCmillan Published.
viii, 183p.: Col. ill. p

Fagg, William
Tribes and forms in African art.– London: Methuen. 122
p.: plates p

Kruta, Venceslas
Celts of the West.– London: Orbsis. 128 p.: plates;
maps

Anton, Ferdinand
Pre-Columbian art and later Indian tribal arts.– New
York: Harry N.Abrams Inc. 264 p.: plates; maps

Fagg, William
Tribal image: wooden figure sculpture of the world.–
London: Trustees of the British Museum. 100 p.: ill. p

Cooper, Ilay
Traditional buildings of India.– London: Thames and
Hudson. 192 p.: paltes p

Frozen tombs: the culture and art of the ancient tribes of
siberia.– London: British Museum Publications. 102 p.:
plates p

Tribal arts and crafts: Madhya Pradesh.– Ahmedabad: Mapin
Publishing. 142 p.: plates; maps

Pal, M. K.
Crafts and craftsmen in traditional India.– New Delhi:
Kanak Publications. xxiii,348 p.: plates p

Ghosh, D. P.
Mediaeval Indian painting eastern school: 13th century
A.D. to modern times including folk art.– Delhi: Sundeep
Prakashan. 155 p.: col. plates p

0pie, James
Tribal Rugs: nomadic and village weavings from the near
east and central Asia.– London: Laurence King. 328 p.:

 

Tribal art and Handicrafts.– Delhi: Bharatiya Adimjati
Sevek Sangh. 12 p.

 

Tribal Handicraft.– Delhi: Bharatiya Adimjati Sevak Sangh.
12 p.

 

Tanavoli, Parviz
Kings, heroes and lovers: pictirial rugs form the tribes
and villages of Iran.– London: Scorpion Publishing. 303
p.: col. plates p

 

Great carpets of the world.– London: Thames and Hudson.
377 p.: col. ill.; map

 

Kalita, Dhaneswar
Traditional performances of South Kamrup.– New Delhi:
Gian Publication House. x,82 p.: ill p

 

Bhavnani, Enakshi
Dance in India: the origin and history, foundations, the
art and science of the dance in India-classical, folk and
tribal.– Bombay: D. B. Taraporevala Sons. xxvi,261 p.:
col. plates p

 

Bhavnani, Enakshi
Folk and tribal designs of India.– Bombay: Taraporevala.
75 p.: plates p

 

Nepal past and present: proceedings of the France-German
conference arc-et-senans, June 1990.– New Delhi:
Sterling. viii,377 p.

 

Dash, Shreeram Chandra
Orissa.– New Delhi: Publications Division. 91 p.

 

Maitra, Kiranshankar
Nagaland: darling of the North-East.– New Delhi: Mittal.
xi,168 p.: col. plates p

 

Uttaranchal Himalaya:
anthropology,archaeology,art,botany,economics,geography,g
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Depot. 342 p.: ill.; maps

 

Aspects of the heritage of Assam: a souvenir.– Gauhati:
Indian History Congress. 104 p.: plates p

 

Hutton, J.H.
Chang language grammar and vocabulary of the language of
the chang Naga tribe.– Delhi: Gian Publishing House.
vi, 120p.

 

Das, A. K.
Tribal art and craft.– Delhi: Agam Kala Prakashan. 190
p.: plates p

 

IMAM
Bridal caves a search for the adivasi khovar tradition: a
study of the wall painting art of the tribal woman of
hazariba.– New Delhi: INTACH. xxv,159 p.: plates p

 

Tribal art.– London: Sotheby’s. 124 p.: col. plates p

 

Russell, R.V.
Tribes and castes of the central provinces of India.–
Delhi: Cosmo. 4v.(426; 540; 259; 608) p.: ill.: map

 

Dongerkery, Kamala S.
Jewelry and personal adornment in India.– Bombay: Vikas.
77 p.

 

Stagnation, retrograde change or positive progress?:
vignettes from the journey of the OBC communities in the
process of change in India.– New Delhi: Serials
Publications. xiv,431 p.

 

Tribal Religion And Economic Life.– New Delhi: Cosmo
Publications. 316 p.

 

Indigenous vision: peoples of India attitudes to the
environment.– New Delhi: Sage & India International
Centre. 304 p.

 

Dalmia, Yashshodhara
The painted world of the Warlis: art and rituals of the
Warli tribes of Maharashtra.– New Delhi: Lalit Kala
Akademi. 239 p.

 

Proceedings of the Indian Art History Congress, 4th
Session, Patna, 1996.– Guwahati: Indian Art History
Congress. 211p.:Plates p

 

Giri, Anup Kumar
Flowing Heritage: an artist’s journey into life of the
tribes.– Kolkata: Anthropological Servey of India.
32p.+ col. ills p

 

Mahapatra, Sitakant
The Awakened Wind : the oral poetry of the Indian Tribes.
— New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. x, 322p.: ill p

 

Elson, Vickie C.
Dowries from Kutch: a women’s folk art tradition in India
— Los Angeles: Museum of Cultural History, University of
California. 127 p

 

A monograph on Silk fabrics : produced in the North-Western
Provinces and Oudh.– Allahabad: North-Western Provinces
and Oudh Government Press. 107+maps

 

Tribal arts and crafts of Madhya Pradesh.– Ahmedabad:
Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd. 144 p.

 

Elwin, Varrier
Tribal art of Middle India

 

Sadanandam, P.
Art and culture of marginalised Nomadic tribes in Andhra
Pradesh.– New Delhi: Gyan publishing house. 211 p.

 

Rural India: Vision and action.– Delhi: Vista
international publishing house. 25 vol. . p

 

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JANGAM LINGAYAT PRIESTS : WHO WORSHIP A MOVEABLE LINGAM in CASTES AND TRIBES OF SOUTHERN INDIA E THURSTON MADRAS 1909

 

INDIA TRIBAL ART ASIAN TRIBAL ART.jpg

CASTES AND TRIBES
OF
SOUTHERN INDIA

BY
EDGAR THURSTON

GOVERNMENT PRESS

MADRAS

1909

INDIA TRIBAL ART ASIAN TRIBAL ART (2).jpg

 

TRIBAL ART INDIA TRIBAL ART.jpg

A Jangam is a priest to the religious sect of Lingayats, but the term is frequently loosely applied to any Lingayat,
which accounts for the large numbers under this head.

Jangams proper are said to be of two classes, Pattadikaris, who have a definite head-quarters, and Charamurtis, who go
from village to village, preaching the principles of the Lingayat sect.

In the Census Report, 1891, it was  recorded that “the full name is Jangama Lingayat, meaning those who always worship a
moveable lingam, in contradistinction to the Sthavara (immoveable) lingam of the temples.

The Jangams are thus referred to by Pietro della Valle (Travels into East India and Arabia deserta, 1665) :
“At Ikkeri I saw certain Indian Friars, whom in their language they call Giangama, and perhaps are the
same with the sages seen by me elsewhere ; but they have wives, and go with their faces smeared with ashes,
yet not naked, but clad in certain extravagant habits, and a kind of hood or cowl upon their heads of dyed
linen of that colour which is generally used amongst them, namely a reddish brick colour, with many bracelets
upon their arms and legs, filled with something within that makes a jangling as they walk. I saw many persons
come to kiss their feet, and, whilst such persons were kissing them, and, for more reverence, touching their
feet with their foreheads, these Giangamas stood firm with a seeming severity, and without taking notice of it,
as if they had been abstracted from the things of the world”.

There is’nt a  distinctive MARK for the JANGAM.

Certain ascetics of the priestly class sometimes put on a red robe peculiar to them, and others cover themselves with
VIBHUTI and many quaint ornaments.

A Jangam, interviewed by the Author at a village in Mysore, named Virabhadra Kayaka, and also known as Kasi Lingada Vira,
was going around the village, shouting, dancing, and repeating the Virabhadra khadga or praise of Virabhadra, Siva’s son.

On his head he had a lingam stuck in his head-cloth, with a five-headed snake forming a canopy over it, and the
sacred bull Basava in front.

Tied to the forehead, and passing round the head, was a string holding thirty-two lingams.

At the back of the head was a mane of white false hair.

His face was painted bright red.

Round the neck he had four garlands of rudraksha beads, and suspended from the neck, and resting on the
chest, was a silver casket containing a lingam.

Round the waist was a waist-band made of brass squares ornamented with a variety of figures, among which
were the heads of Daksha Brahma and Virabhadra.

Suspended from the neck was a breast-plate, with a representation of Virabhadra and the figures of Daksha
Brahma and his wife engraved in copper.

From the waist a piece of tiger skin was suspended, to which were attached two heads of Daksha Brahma with a
lion’s head between.

Hanging lower down was a figure of Basava.

Tied to the ankles were hollow brass cylinders with loose bits of brass inside.

Strings of round brass bells were tied to the knees.

In his right hand he carried a long sword, and tied to the left forearm was a gauntlethandled scimitar.

To the handle were attached pieces of brass, which made a noise when the arm was shaken.

Finally, round the forearm were tied pieces of bear skin.

***

**

INDIAN FOLK AND TRIBAL ARTS BIBLIOGRAPHY

Journal Articles

1 Kochar, V K
A note on some Drawings by Onge of Little Andaman.
BULLETEIN OF THE CULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, 4(1-2),
1965: 25-26
Tribes; Tribes-Onge; Tribal Drawing Art-Onge; Onge-Little Andaman.
Sarkar, Sabita Ranjan
On the Study of Primitive Art in India.
BULLETEIN OF THE CULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, 7(1-2),
1968: 89-97
Primitive Art; Primitive Art in India; Anthropology; Tribal Art.
Mukerji, Sankarananda
Folklore of the Sundarban Tribes.
BULLETEIN OF THE CULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, 8(1-2),
1969: 97-100
Tribes-Sundarban; Folklore; Tribal Folklore; Folklore
Sundarban Tribes; Anthropology; Tribal Art and Recreation
Koppar, D. H.
Tribal art and its place in the enthnological museum.
THE EASTERN ANTHROPOLOGIST, 29(1), 1976: 91-99
Tribal art; enthnological museum.
Lochan, Pramila
The Kitab-I-Nauras: An Aesthete’s Tribute
KALA-THE JOURNAL OF INDIAN ART HISTORY CONGRESS, 3, 1996:116-118
Aesthetics; Art-Indian-History; Kitab-I-Nauras-Poetry-
Ibrahim Adil Shah II-Aesthetic tribute.
Bora, D K
The Wood Carvings of the Wanchos of Arunachal Pradesh.
KALA-THE JOURNAL OF INDIAN ART HISTORY CONGRESS, 4, 1997:86-88
Art-Indian-History; Tribal Art-Wanchos; Art-Wood Carving; Wood Carvings-Wanchos-Arunachal Pradesh.
Sisodia, Vishnudev N.
“Pancvi” the magicio: Religious art of the Varlis
THE EASTERN ANTHROPOLOGIST, 16(1), 1963: 47-52
Varlis tribe; religious art; Pancvi.
Aryan, Subhashini
Tribal art: Visual expressions of vivid tales
DISCOVER INDIA, 4(7), 1991: 10-13
Tribal art; Indian art.
Aryan, Subhashini
Expressions of tribal genius.
DISCOVER INDIA, 6(2), 1993: 46-49
Art-Himalayan tribes; craft-Himalayan tribes; tribal art-Himalaya.
Annapurna
Traditions and newer traditions.
DISCOVER INDIA, 11(12), 1998: 26-29
Tribal art-India; tradition-painting art.
Mohan, Kumud
A German tribute.
DISCOVER INDIA, 11(12), 1998: 72-74
Indian art; museum-Indian art-Berlin.
Chakravorty, Padmini
Social Structure of the Tribals of Tripura as reflected
through their Dances.
FOLKLORE, 228, 1979(February): 31-39 Vol 20 (2).
Folklore; Folk-Tribal Social Structure-Tripuri Tribe-
Dance; Folk-Dance-Social Structure-Tribe-Tripura; Folk
Dance-Social Structure-Tribe-Tripura; Folk Art-Dance-
Tripura Tribe-Social Structure.
Cranstone, Bryan
Three ‘tribal art’ sales.
ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY, 3(1-6), 1987: 19-20
Silver, Harry R
Beauty and the “I” of the Beholder: identity, asthetics,and social change among the Ashanti
JOURNAL OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL RESEARCH, 35(2), 1979(Summer):191-207
Anthropology; Tribal Identity; Tribal Visual Art- Modern Developments; African Tourist Arts; Ethnography;
Triabal Art-Modernisation-Ashanti; Ashanti; Tourist Art;Tribal Study; .
Aryan, Subhashini
Tribal art of India.
INDIAN AND FOREIGN REVIEW, 22(19), 1985: 23-26
ribal art-India; art.
Maiti, Sameera
Tribal arts and crafts: A study among the Tharu of Uttar Pradesh
INDIAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, 31(2), 2001: 69-74
Anthropology; tribal arts; tribe-Uttaer Pradesh; craft art-Tharu-Uttar Pradesh; Tharu-Uttar Pradesh.
Jain, Jyotindra
Tribal crafts, and the case of Mohammed and the mountain.
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 4(3), 1984: 74-75  Art; craft.
Jain, Jyotindra
Painted myths of creation: The art and ritual of a Indian tribe
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 5(2), 1985: 20-29
Tribal art; art-tribe-India; ritual-tribe-India;tribals.
Control No. : 57630
Chakraverty, Somnath
Wall embellishments: Tribal murals of Chhotanagpur
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 6(2), 1986: 22-27
Tribal murals-Chhotanagpur; tribal art; art; paintings tribals-Chhotanagpur; wall paintings.
Tiwari, Jyotsna
Beliefs, traditions, needs…: Perpetuating the rural art of terracotta
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 6(5), 1986: 62-64
Rural art; art; terracotta; tribal art.
Patil, Manisha
Bastar wood work.
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 7(4), 1987: 36-40
Craft; wood work-Bastar; tribal art-Bastar.
Hrahsel, Zothanpari
North eastern tribal art.
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 7(7), 1987: 78-85
Art; tribal art-north east.
Das, A. K.
A Naga warrior’s mask: A dilemma of authenticity
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 11(12), 1991: 82-83
Tribal art; Naga mask; mask.
Das, A. K.
Commercialisation of tribal art.
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 12(3), 1992: 80-81
** Tribal art.
Thiagarajan, K. M.
Tribal art: Beyond the mask of civilisation
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 12(4), 1992: 18-31
** Art; tribal art-India; tribals.
Nath, Tribhuvan
A prophetic world.
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 13(9), 1993: 54-61
Art; S. S. Bhatti, painter.
The magical script.
THE INDIA MAGAZINE, 14(7), 1994: 52-59
Art; tribal art; art-Hill Korwa.
Tribal magic.
INSIDE OUTSIDE, 186, 2000: 36-37
Tribal art; interior decoration.
Dimitriadis, George
Hellenic rock art: State of art, open questions and new paradigms
MAN IN INDIA: A INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANTHROPOLOGY, 88
(2-3), 2008: 449-458
Hellenic rock art; rock art.
Geismar, Haidy
What’s in a price?
JOURNAL OF MATERIAL CULTURE, 6(1), 2001: 25-47
Art market, auctions, price, tournament of value, tribal art.
Ghosh, Asok K . and Chakraverti, Somnath Genesis and change of tribal art- examples from west
Bengal.
INDIAN MUSEUM BULLETIN, 23-24, 1988-1989: 136-141
Oberoi, R. C., Sharma, A. K. and Sharma, S. K.
Environmental limitations, socio-economic status and
constraints of tribal economy in outer Himalayas – a
study of pangi.
JOURNAL OF HUMAN ECOLOGY, 5(1), 1994(January): 63-67
Environment, socio-economic structure, agriculture,
technology.
Tag, Hui, Das, A .K . and Pallabi, H .
Botanbical resources used in triditional wood carving
industry among the wancho tribe of Arunachal pradesh.
INDIAN JOURNAL OF TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE, 7(1), 2009
(January): 148-156
Traditional woodcarving industry , Botanical
resources, wancho community, Arunachal pradesh.
Gogoi, N . K .
Glimpses of social reality throuh tattoos of the wanchos
of Arunachal Pradesh.
JOURNAL OF INDIAN ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 41(03), 2008
(November): 291-297
Features of this issue.
KALORI: ROYAL SOUTH AUSTRALIAN SOCIETY OF ARTS JOURNAL,
26(2), 1988: 1-8
Mukherjee, Meera
Gharuas: A metal artisan group and their art
MAN IN INDIA, 54(4), 1974(Oct. – Dec.): 287-303
Annapurna
Traditions and bewer traditions.
DISCOVER INDIA, 11(12), 1998(December): 26-29
Tribal Art; Warli Painting; Painting; Gond-Painting;
Wall Painting; .
Mohan, Kumud
A german tribute.
DISCOVER INDIA, 11(12), 1998(December): 72-74
Indian Art; Traditional Art; ancient art.
Elwin, Verrier and Datta, Sudhindranath
The tribal art.
MARG, 5(4): 30-34
Tribal; tribal art; .
Imam, Bulu
Cultural spatial concepta implicit in tribal art and
identity in Hazaribagh district.
MAN IN INDIA, 73(2), 1993(June): 163-172
Jain, Jyotindra
Commercializing tribal art.
SEMINAR, 412, 1993(December): 43-44
Imam, Bulu
Tribal India speaks.
SUNDARAM: A MAGAZINE ON CONTEMPORARY ART, 2(2), 1989: 5-8
Art.
Abidi, Tanveer
Folk and tribal art.
SUNDARAM: A MAGAZINE ON CONTEMPORARY ART, 3(5-6), 1990: 37-38
Chakraverty, Somnath
Indigeenous tribal art: Strategy for consevation and promotion
JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 6(1-2), 2009(Jan. – D
ec.): 87-102
Loxley, Anne
Khovar d
reamings: Contemporary tribal art in South Bihar,India
ART ASIA PASIFIC, 18, 1998: 36-41
Art; Tribal art-Bihar.
Thomas, Nicholas
Islands of history: Reflections on two exhibitions of
Torres Strait islander culture
ART ASIA PASIFIC, 27, 2000: 70-77
Art; Tribal art-Torres Strait; Art-Torres Strait.
Schemes to preserve and promote tribal art and culture.
TRIBAL RESEARCH BULLETIN, 20(1), 1998(March): 37-38
Tribal development; Tribal arts; Tribal culture; art
and craft-tribes; .
Shukla, Shubhalakshmi
Bastar’s adivasi women and their art.
MARG, 56(2), 2004(December): 62-65
Art-Bastar; Tribal art-Bastar.
Sharma, Anjali and Sharma, Promila
Handloom weaving – state of art of tribes of kullu
valley, Himachal Pradesh, India.
STUDIES OF TRIBES AND TRIBALS, 7(2), 2009(December):
115-118
Craft; Woven; Shawls; Fabrication; Trade; Multinational..
Schemes of the Bihar state govt. submitted to tthe govt. of
India under art. 275 of constitution of India: For the
uplift of scheduled tribes during 1952-53
VANYAJATI, 1(3), 1953(July): 72-74
** Tribal development-Bihar.
Chakraverty, Somnath
Cultural configuration of rock art in Jharkhand: A
holistic approach.
PURAKALA: THE JOURNAL OF ROCK ART SOCIETY OF INDIA
(RASI), 11-12(1-2), 2001: 109-112
Nzunguba, Ibio
Portee socioartistique et magico-religieuse d’un art du
corps: La rondelle on bois inseree dans la levre de la
“Congolaise a plateau”
ANTHROPOS: INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF ETHNOLOGY AND
LINGUISTICS, 102(2), 2007: 389-401
Jain, Jyotindra
Sundaribai: Speaking with clay.
INTERNATIONAL GALLERI, 7(1), 2004: 39-44

Tribal Art & Craft – Books

Aryan, Subhashini
Unknown Masterpieces of Indian Folk & Tribal Art.– New
Delhi: Ajanta Offset. 248 p.

Reference Orissa: Millennium Edition.– Bhubaneswar:
Enterprising Publishers. 677p.

Channa , Subhadra
Witchctaft and Black art Witchcraft and Sorcery in Tribal
Religion.– New Delhi: Cosmo Publications. 309p.

Tribal Religion And Economic Life.– New Delhi: Cosmo
Publications. 316 p

The Art & Crafts of Kondhs.– Bhubaneswar: Council of
Professional Social Workers. 184 p.

Borgohain, H.
Handloom and handicrafts of the ADIS.– Itanagar:
Directorate of Research Govt. of Arunachal Pradesh. 46
p. : ill. p

Agrawal, Ashvini
Sarupa Saurabhamrt: Tributes to Indology Prof. Lakshman
Sarup Centenary Volume.– New Delhi: Manjit Singh. 391 p

Topno, Sem
Musical culture of the munda tribe.– New Delhi: Concept
Publishing. 589 p

Indian Artisans:Social Institutions and Culture Values.–
Kalkata: ASI Govt. of India ministry of culture Dept. of
culture. xi,123 p

Theory and practice: essays presnted to gene weltfish.–
New York: Mouton Publishing. x,362 p.

Fuchs, Stephen
Bottom of Indian society: the harijan and other low
castes.– Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. vii, 325p.

Smith W. C.
Ao-Naga Tribes of Assam.– Delhi: Gian Publications.
xxvii,244 p.

Jerath, Ashok
The splendour of Himalayan Art and culture.– New Delhi:
Indus publishers. 167 p.; map;ill p

Towards a cultural policy.– Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.
viii, 286 p.

Das, S.T.
Tribal Life of North- Eastern India.– Delhi: Gian
Publishing. x, 317p.: ill. p

Sharma, Vijay Prakash
Hmars of Manipur: an anthropological exploration.– New
Delhi: Anmol Publications. x,124 p.: Plates p

Das, S.T.
Tribal development and socio-cultural matrix.– Delhi:
Kanishka Publishers Distributors. x,272 p.; plates p

Bose, Nirmal Kumar
Tribal life in India.– New Delhi: National Book Trust.
ix,82 p.; ill; plates 24 p

Barua, S. N.
Tribes of Indo – Burma Border ( a Socio – Cultural
history of the inhabitants of the Patkai Range).– New
Delhi: Mittal Publications. xv,411 p.; plates p

Baveja, J.D.
The land where the Bamboo flowers.– Gauhati: Publication
Board. 83 p.; plates p

Hasan, Amir
A Bunch of wild flowers and other articies.– Lucknow:
Ethnographic and Folk Culture Society. 189,ix,xii p.

Russell, R.V.
Tribes and castes of the Central provinces of India.–
Delhi: Cosmo. 4v.(426; 540; 608) p.: ill.: map

Kalita, Dhaneswar
Traditional performances of South Kamrup.– New Delhi:
Gian Publication House. x,82 p.: ill. p

Skeen, Andrew
Passing it on: short talks on tribal fighting on the
North West frontier of India.– New Delhi: Bhavana books
& Prints. 136p.

Chandorker, Manoj S.
Haemoglobin & our tribes: a state of art on tribal health
— Bhopal: The Society of Bionaturalists. 57p.:ill. p

Majumdar, D.N.
An introduction to social anthropology.– New Delhi:
National Publishing House. xii,307 p.

Vidyarthi, L. P.
Contribution to the development of anthropology.– New
Delhi: Concept. xxv,167 p.: ill. p

India: specially published for the festival of India in the
U. S. S. R.– New Delhi: Brijbasi. 235 p.: col. ill. p

Agrawala, P.K.
Study in Indian iconography.– Jaipur: Publication Scheme
158p.: ill. p

Tribal art: primitivism and modern relevance.– Bhubaneswar
: Working Artists Association of Orissa. 120 p.: ill p

Tiwari, Jyotsna
Traditions of terracotta art in Madhya Pradesh.– Delhi:
Pratibha Prakashan. xxiv, 116p.: ill. p

Welch, Stuart Cary
India: art and culture, 1300-1900.– New York:
Metropolitan Museum of Art. 477 p.: plates p

Goodall, Edward A.
Sketches of Amerindian tribes 1841-1843.– Guyana:
British Museum. 88 p.: ill. p

Koppar, D. H.
Tribal art of dangs.– Baroda: Department of Museums.
xx,166 p.: ill. p

Gillon, Werner
Collecting African art.– London: MaCmillan Published.
viii, 183p.: Col. ill. p

Fagg, William
Tribes and forms in African art.– London: Methuen. 122
p.: plates p

Kruta, Venceslas
Celts of the West.– London: Orbsis. 128 p.: plates;
maps

Anton, Ferdinand
Pre-Columbian art and later Indian tribal arts.– New
York: Harry N.Abrams Inc. 264 p.: plates; maps

Fagg, William
Tribal image: wooden figure sculpture of the world.–
London: Trustees of the British Museum. 100 p.: ill. p

Cooper, Ilay
Traditional buildings of India.– London: Thames and
Hudson. 192 p.: paltes p

Frozen tombs: the culture and art of the ancient tribes of
siberia.– London: British Museum Publications. 102 p.:
plates p

Tribal arts and crafts: Madhya Pradesh.– Ahmedabad: Mapin
Publishing. 142 p.: plates; maps

Pal, M. K.
Crafts and craftsmen in traditional India.– New Delhi:
Kanak Publications. xxiii,348 p.: plates p

Ghosh, D. P.
Mediaeval Indian painting eastern school: 13th century
A.D. to modern times including folk art.– Delhi: Sundeep
Prakashan. 155 p.: col. plates p

0pie, James
Tribal Rugs: nomadic and village weavings from the near
east and central Asia.– London: Laurence King. 328 p.:

 

Tribal art and Handicrafts.– Delhi: Bharatiya Adimjati
Sevek Sangh. 12 p.

 

Tribal Handicraft.– Delhi: Bharatiya Adimjati Sevak Sangh.
12 p.

 

Tanavoli, Parviz
Kings, heroes and lovers: pictirial rugs form the tribes
and villages of Iran.– London: Scorpion Publishing. 303
p.: col. plates p

 

Great carpets of the world.– London: Thames and Hudson.
377 p.: col. ill.; map

 

Kalita, Dhaneswar
Traditional performances of South Kamrup.– New Delhi:
Gian Publication House. x,82 p.: ill p

 

Bhavnani, Enakshi
Dance in India: the origin and history, foundations, the
art and science of the dance in India-classical, folk and
tribal.– Bombay: D. B. Taraporevala Sons. xxvi,261 p.:
col. plates p

 

Bhavnani, Enakshi
Folk and tribal designs of India.– Bombay: Taraporevala.
75 p.: plates p

 

Nepal past and present: proceedings of the France-German
conference arc-et-senans, June 1990.– New Delhi:
Sterling. viii,377 p.

 

Dash, Shreeram Chandra
Orissa.– New Delhi: Publications Division. 91 p.

 

Maitra, Kiranshankar
Nagaland: darling of the North-East.– New Delhi: Mittal.
xi,168 p.: col. plates p

 

Uttaranchal Himalaya:
anthropology,archaeology,art,botany,economics,geography,g
ology,history and sociology.– Almora: Shree Almora Book
Depot. 342 p.: ill.; maps

 

Aspects of the heritage of Assam: a souvenir.– Gauhati:
Indian History Congress. 104 p.: plates p

 

Hutton, J.H.
Chang language grammar and vocabulary of the language of
the chang Naga tribe.– Delhi: Gian Publishing House.
vi, 120p.

 

Das, A. K.
Tribal art and craft.– Delhi: Agam Kala Prakashan. 190
p.: plates p

 

IMAM
Bridal caves a search for the adivasi khovar tradition: a
study of the wall painting art of the tribal woman of
hazariba.– New Delhi: INTACH. xxv,159 p.: plates p

 

Tribal art.– London: Sotheby’s. 124 p.: col. plates p

 

Russell, R.V.
Tribes and castes of the central provinces of India.–
Delhi: Cosmo. 4v.(426; 540; 259; 608) p.: ill.: map

 

Dongerkery, Kamala S.
Jewelry and personal adornment in India.– Bombay: Vikas.
77 p.

 

Stagnation, retrograde change or positive progress?:
vignettes from the journey of the OBC communities in the
process of change in India.– New Delhi: Serials
Publications. xiv,431 p.

 

Tribal Religion And Economic Life.– New Delhi: Cosmo
Publications. 316 p.

 

Indigenous vision: peoples of India attitudes to the
environment.– New Delhi: Sage & India International
Centre. 304 p.

 

Dalmia, Yashshodhara
The painted world of the Warlis: art and rituals of the
Warli tribes of Maharashtra.– New Delhi: Lalit Kala
Akademi. 239 p.

 

Proceedings of the Indian Art History Congress, 4th
Session, Patna, 1996.– Guwahati: Indian Art History
Congress. 211p.:Plates p

 

Giri, Anup Kumar
Flowing Heritage: an artist’s journey into life of the
tribes.– Kolkata: Anthropological Servey of India.
32p.+ col. ills p

 

Mahapatra, Sitakant
The Awakened Wind : the oral poetry of the Indian Tribes.
— New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. x, 322p.: ill p

 

Elson, Vickie C.
Dowries from Kutch: a women’s folk art tradition in India
— Los Angeles: Museum of Cultural History, University of
California. 127 p

 

A monograph on Silk fabrics : produced in the North-Western
Provinces and Oudh.– Allahabad: North-Western Provinces
and Oudh Government Press. 107+maps

 

Tribal arts and crafts of Madhya Pradesh.– Ahmedabad:
Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd. 144 p.

 

Elwin, Varrier
Tribal art of Middle India

 

Sadanandam, P.
Art and culture of marginalised Nomadic tribes in Andhra
Pradesh.– New Delhi: Gyan publishing house. 211 p.

 

Rural India: Vision and action.– Delhi: Vista
international publishing house. 25 vol. . p

 

§§§

 

*


 

INDIA LEGENDS FOLKLORE ART AND CULTURE: SANTAL DREAM’S INTERPRETATION in THE JOURNAL of THE BIHAR AND ORISSA RESEARCH SOCIETY 1915

01.jpg

THE JOURNAL

OF THE

BIHAR AND ORISSA

RESEARCH SOCIETY

1915

on

SUPERSTITIONS OF THE SANTALS

by

A CAMPBELL

DREAMS

If cows are seen in a dream it will rain.

If a person dreams of a house on fire he or one of his family will die.

To dream of flowing river presages a bowel complaint.

When a snake is seen in a dream they say some relative is preparing to pay me a visit.

If one dreams of being bitten by a snake, he expects a visit from a relative, and if he
dreams of killing a snake he says a friend intended to visit me, but will not now come.

If a cart is seen in a dream they say the corpse of some one will be carried out.

If one dreams of a bear a witch will come.

It is unlucky to dream of killing fish, as it means collecting the bones of the dead.

To dream of building a house means that some one will die and his funeral pyre will be built.

If one dreams of seeing a corpse it is that one of his own family who will die.

If one dreams of doing evil to another that evil will befall himself, and to dream of doing
an injury to oneself means that the reverse will take place.

***

 

02.jpg

 

03 (2).JPG

 

03.jpg

 

04.jpg

 

05.jpg

 

06.JPG

§§§

§§

§

 

 

INDIA LEGENDS FOLKLORE ART AND CULTURE: NAYADI ANCESTRAL CIRCLE in ETHNOGRAPHIC NOTES E THURSTON 1906

1.jpg

ETHNOGRAPHIC NOTES

in

SOUTHERN INDIA

by

EDGAR THURSTON

MADRAS

1906

 

The Nayadis used to keep memorial monunents to deceased ancestors beneath a mango tree in a paramba (garden).

 

The Author counted forty-four stones set up in a circle round the tree.

 

One of these stones was a beli-kal (beli stone), such as is placed round the inner shrines of temples.

 

The renininder resembled survey stones, but were smaller in size.

 

The Author asked a Nayadi what the stones indicated.

 

He stated that they represented forty-four grown-up Nayadis who had left the world.

 

The stone was set up immediately after the cremation of the body.

 

During this ceremonial, solemn prayers were offered that the souls of the departed may protect them from
the ravages of wild beasts and snakes.

 

§§§

 

§§

 

§

 

INDIA LEGENDS FOLKLORE ART AND CULTURE: HAND MARKS ON THE WALL TO AVERT THE EVIL EYE in OMENS AND SUPERSTITION OF SOUTHERN

1.jpg

OMENS AND SUPERSTITION OF SOUTHERN INDIA

by

EDGAR THURSTON

NEW YORK

1912

 

During a marriage among the Madigas (Telugu Pariahs), a sheep or goat is sacrificed to the marriage
pots.

The sacrificer dips his hand in the blood of the animal, and impresses the blood on his palms on the
wall near the door leading to the room in which the pots are kept.

This is said to avert the evil eye.

Among the Telugu Malas, a few days before a wedding, two marks are made, one on each side of the door,
with oil and charcoal, for the same purpose.

At Kadur, in the Mysore Province, the Author reported impressions of the hands on the walls of Brahman houses.

§§§

§§

§

INDIA LEGENDS FOLKLORE ART AND CULTURE: POLA FESTIVAL in TRIBES AND CASTES OF THE CENTRAL PROVINCES OF INDIA RV RUSSEL 1916

1.jpg

THE TRIBES AND CASTES

OF THE

CENTRAL PROVINCES

OF INDIA

by

R.V. RUSSEL

VOL IV

1916

 

The principal festival of the Kunbis is the Pola, falling at about the middle of the rainy season, when they have a
procession of plough-bullocks.

 

An old bullock goes first, and on his horns is tied the makhar, a wooden frame with pegs to which torches are affixed.

 

They make a rope of mango-leaves stretched between two posts, and the makhar bullock is made to break this and stampede
back to the village, followed by all the other cattle.

 

It is said that the makhar bullock will die within three years.

 

Behind him come the bullocks of the proprietors and then those of the tenants in the order, not so much of their wealth,
but of their standing in the village and of the traditional position held by their families.

 

***

 

**

 

*

 

 

 

INDIA LEGENDS FLOKLORE ART AND CULTURE: SUPERSTITIONS OF THE SANTALS in JOURNAL OF THE BIHAR ORISSA RESEARCH SOC DEC 1915

 

DSCN4564.JPG

SUPERSTITIONS OF THE SANTALS

in

JOURNAL OF THE BIHAR ORISSA RESEARCH SOCIETY

by

A CAMPBELL

DECEMBER 1915

 

If sand is eaten in food they say there will be a good harvest.

A young woman will not put a lotus flower in her hair. If she does she will make a run-away marriage.

If a branch of the soso tree (Semicarpus anacardium) is fixed in a field of cotton it will be preserved from the evil eye.

A pregnant woman will not make bread, if she do so her child’s ears will be wrinkled and the oil in which the bread is
being fried will all evaporate.

They do not point with the finger at a rainbow, lest the finger should become maimed or curved.

 

DSCN4562.JPG

If sand is eaten in food they say there will be a good harvest.

A young woman will not put a lotus flower in her hair. If she does she will make a run-away marriage.

If a branch of the soso tree (Semicarpus anacardium) is fixed in a field of cotton it will be preserved from the evil eye.

A pregnant woman will not make bread, if she do so her child’s ears will be wrinkled and the oil in which the bread is
being fried will all evaporate.

They do not point with the finger at a rainbow, lest the finger should become maimed or curved.

Beef is never cooked inside a house, to do so would be an insult to the bongas.

Goat’s milk is not given to children  as it makes them quarrelsome.

If a raven croaks near a house it means a death.
***

**

*

INDIA LEGENDS FLOKLORE ART AND CULTURE: GRAMA DEVATA: WORSHIP WITH ANIMAL SACRIFICE in THE VILLAGE GODS OF SOUTH INDIA 1921

 

2.jpg

THE RELIGIOUS LIFE OF INDIA

THE VILLAGE GODS OF SOUTH INDIA

by

HENRY WHITEHEAD

1921

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Antedating the Aryan invasion, and predating their introduction of Hinduism with its complex pantheon of deities
in the second millemium B.C.,  the typical and unique workship of the VILLAGE GODS is probably the most ancient
form of Indian indigenous religious beliefs and costume system, praticated by the old and originary inhabitants
of the place, the Dravidians.

These sistem of beliefs is based on a conception in which the world is peopled by a great moltitude of good and
bad spirits that are the cause of all the diseases and disasters.

In this kind of ancient and primitive religion the object of the people was to propitiate these innumerable legions
of spirits, each village was under the protection of one guardian deity, at once hero,protector, councilor.

The village deities were ALMOST UNIVERSALLY WORSHIPPED WITH ANIMAL SACRIFICIES, Buffaloes, sheep,
goats, pigs, and fowls are freely offered to them, sometimes in thousands.

The buffalo-sacrifice has special features of its own, and seems to retain TRACES OF A PRIMITIVE FORM OF WORSHIP , which may
possibly have originated in TOTEMISM.

EVERY VILLAGE  in South India is believed by the people TO BE SURROUNDED BY EVIL SPIRITS, who are always on the watch to
inflict diseases and misfortunes of all kinds on the unhappy villagers.

So the poor people turn for PROTECTION TO THE GUARDIAN DEITIES OF THEIR VILLAGE, whose function it is TO WARD OFF THESE
EVIL SPIRITS AND PROTECT THE VILLAGE FROM EPIDEMICS OF CHOLERA, SMALL POX, OR FEVER , from cattle disease, failure of
crops, childlessness, fires, and all the manifold ills that flesh is heir to in an Indian village.

THE SOLE OBJECT , then, OF THE WORSHIP OF THESE VILLAGE DEITIES IS TO PROPITIATE THEM AND TO AVERT THEIR WRATH.

In the Telugu country the potters and the washermen, who are Sudras of low caste, often officiate as priests, and
have an important part, especially in the buffalo sacrifices, that is taken by the Malas and Madigas. 

A Madiga nearly always kills the buffalo and performs the unpleasant ceremonies connected with the sprinkling of the
blood, and there are certain families among the Malas, called Asadis, who are the nearest approach to a priestly caste
in connexion with the village deities.

They have the hereditary right to assist at the sacrifices, to chant the praises of the goddess while the sacrifices are
being offered, and to perform certain ceremonies.

But in the more primitive villages, where, it may be presumed, primitive customs prevail, it is remarkable how great
a variety of people take an official part in the worship : the potter, the carpenter, the toddy-drawer, the
washerman, Malas and Madigas, and even the Brahman Karnam or village accountant, have all their parts to play. 

We  will take a village in the Telugu country, the village deity, in this particular village, is called Peddamma,

THE GREAT MOTHER

 

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he epidemic is a sign that SHE IS ANGRY AND REQUIRES TO BE PROPITIATED.

So a collection is made for the expenses of a festival, or a rich man offers to pay all expenses, and a propitious day is
selected, which in this village may be any day except Sunday or Thursday.

Then the potter of the village is instructed to make a CLAY IMAGE OF THE GREAT MOTHER, and the carpenter to make a small
wooden CART, and a BUFFALO is chosen as the chief victim for the SACRIFICE.

When the appointed day arrives, the buffalo is sprinkled all over with yellow turmeric while garlands of margosa leaves are
hung round its neck and tied to its horns.

At about two p.m. it is conducted round the village in procession to the sound of music and the beating of tom-toms.

The two sections of the Outcastes, the Malas and the Madigas, take the leading Part in the sacrifice, and conduct the buffalo
from house to house.

One Madiga goes on ahead, with a tom tom, to announce that “the buffalo devoted to the goddess is coming.”

The people then come out from their houses, bow down to worship the buffalo, and pour water over his feet, and also give
some food to the Malas and Madigas, who form the procession.

By about eight p.m. this ceremony is finished, and the buffalo is brought to an open spot in the village and tied up near a
small canopy of cloths supported on bamboo poles,which has been set up for the reception of the goddess.

All the villagers then assemble at the same place, and at about ten p.m. they go in procession, with music and tom toms and
torches, to the house of the potter, where the clay image is ready prepared.

On arriving at his house, they pour about two and a half measures of rice on the ground and put the image on the top of it,
adorned with a new cloth and jewels.

All who are present then worship the image, and a ram is killed, its head being cut off with a large chopper, and the blood
sprinkled on the top of the image, as a kind of consecration.

The potter then takes up the idol and carries it out of the house for a little distance, and gives it to a washerman, who
carries it to the place where the canopy has been set up to receive it.

During the procession the people flourish sticks and swords and spears to keep off the evil spirits, and, for the same
purpose, cut limes in half and throw them up in the air.

The idea is that the greedy demons will clutch at the golden limes and carry them off, and so be diverted from any attack
on the man who carries the image.

When the idol has been duly deposited under the canopy, another procession is made to the house of the toddy-drawer.
 
He is the man who climbs the palm trees and draws off the juice which is made into toddy.

At his house some rice is cooked, and a pot of toddy and a bottle of arrack are produced and duly smeared with yellow
turmeric and a red paste, constantly used in religious
 

worship among the Hindus and called kimkuma^

The cooked rice is put in front of the pot of toddy and bottle of arrack, a ram is killed in sacrifice, and then the
toddy-drawer worships the pot and the bottle.

The village officials pay him his fee, three-eighths of a measure of rice, three-eighths of a measure of cholam 2 and four
annas, and then he carries the pot and bottle in proces sion, and places them under the canopy near the image of
Peddamma.

Then comes yet another procession.

The people go off to the house of the chief official, the Reddy, and bring from it some cooked rice in a large
earthenware pot, some sweet cakes, and a lamb.

A large quantity of margosa leaves are spread on the ground in front of the image, the rice from the Reddy s house is
placed upon them in a heap, and a large heap of rice, from one hundred to three hundred measures, according to the amount
of the subscriptions, is poured in a heap a little farther away.

All these elaborate proceedings form only the preparations for the great sacrifice, which is now about to begin.

The lamb is first worshipped and then sacrificed by having its throat cut and its head cut off.

A ram is next brought and stood over the first large heap of rice, and is there cut in two, through the back, with a heavy
chopper, by one of the village washermen.

The blood pours out over the rice and soaks it through.

One half of the ram is then taken up and carried to a spot a few yards off, where a body of Asadis are standing ready to
begin their part in the ceremonies.

The other half of the ram is left lying on the rice. The Asadis then begin to sing a long chant in honour of the deity.

Meanwhile, the chief sacrifice is made.

The buffalo is brought forward, and the Madigas kill it by cutting its throat (in some villages its head is cut off).

Some water is first poured over the blood, and then the pool of blood and water is covered up carefully with earth, lest
any outsider from another village should come and steal it.

The idea is that if any man from another village should take away and carry home even a small part of the blood, that
village would get the benefit of the sacrifice.

The head of the buffalo is then cut off and placed before the image, with a layer of fat from its entrails smeared over
the fore head and face, so as to cover entirely the eyes and nose.

The right foreleg is cut off and placed crosswise in the mouth, some boiled rice is placed upon the fat on the
forehead, and on it an earthenware lamp, which is kept alight during the whole of the festival.

Why the right foreleg should be cut off and placed in the mouth, and what the meaning of it is, I have never been able to
discover nor can I conjecture. When I have asked the villagers, they only reply, “It is the custom.”

But I have found the custom prevailing in all parts of South India, among Tamils, Telugus, and Canarese alike, and I
have been informed that exactly the same custom prevails in the Southern Maratha country.

It seems to be a very ancient part of the ritual of sacrifice prevailing in South India.

Some of the rice from the heap, over which the ram was sacrificed and its blood poured out, is taken and put
in a flat basket, and some of the entrails of the buffalo are mixed with it.

The intestines of the lamb, which was first killed, are put over the neck of a Mala, and its liver is placed in his
mouth,  while another Mala takes the basket of rice soaked in blood and mixed with the entrails of the buffalo.

A procession is then formed with these two weird figures in the middle.

The man with the liver in his mouth is worked up into a state of frantic excitement and is supposed to be inspired by
the goddess.

He has to be held by men on either side of him, or kept fast with ropes, to prevent his rushing away ; and all round him
are the ryots, the small farmers, and the Malas, flourishing clubs and swords,and throwing limes into the air, to drive
away the evil spirits.

As the procession moves through the village, the people shout out ” Food ! Food ! ” and the man who carries the basket
sprinkles the rice soaked in blood over the houses to protect them from evil spirits.

As he walks along, he shouts out, at intervals, that he sees the evil spirits, and falls down in a faint.

Then lambs have to be sacrificed on the spot and limes thrown into the air and cocoanuts broken, to drive away the demons
and bring the man to his senses.

And so the procession moves through the village, amid frantic excitement, till, as the day dawns, they return to the canopy,
where the great mother is peacefully reposing.

At about ten a.m. a fresh round of ceremonies begins.

Some meat is cut from the carcass of the buffalo and cooked with some cholam, and then given to five little Mala boys,
siddhalu, the innocents, as they are called.

They are all covered over with a large cloth, and eat the food entirely concealed from view, probably to prevent the evil
spirits from seeing them, or the evil eye from striking them.

And then some more food is served to the Asadis, who have been for many hours, during the ceremonies of the night,
chanting the praises of the goddess.

After this the villagers bring their offerings.

The Brahmans, who may not kill animals, bring rice and cocoanuts, and other castes bring lambs, goats, sheep, fowls, and
buffaloes, which are all killed by the washermen, by cutting their throats, except the buffaloes, which are always killed
by the Madigas, the lowest class of Outcastes.

The heads are all cut off and presented to the goddess.

This lasts till about three p.m., when the people go off to the house of the village carpenter, who has got ready a small
wooden cart.

On their arrival some cooked rice is offered to the cart, and a lamb sacrificed before it, and a new cloth and eight
annas are given to the carpenter as his fee.

The cart is then dragged by the washermen, to the sound of horns and tom-toms, to the place of sacrifice.

The heads and carcasses of the animals already sacrificed are first removed by the Malas and Madigas, except the head of
the buffalo first offered, which remains in its place till all the ceremonies are finished, when the shrine is
removed.

At about seven p.m. another series of ceremonies begins.

First a lamb is sacrificed before the goddess, and its blood mixed with some cooked rice, and at the same time a pig is
buried up to the neck in a pit at the entrance of the village, with its head projecting above the earth.

The villagers go in procession to the spot, while one of the Madigas carries the rice, soaked in the blood of the lamb, in
a basket.

All the cattle of the village are then brought to the place and driven over the head of the unhappy pig, 1 which is, of
course, trampled to death ; and, as they pass over the pig, the blood and rice are sprinkled upon them to preserve them
from disease.

Then, after this, follows the final ceremony.

The image of the goddess is taken from the canopy by the washerman, and a Madiga takes the head of the buffalo with its
foreleg in the mouth, the forehead and nostrils all smeared over with fat, and the earthen lamp still lighted on the top.

They then all go in procession to the boundary of the village, first the men carrying the buffalo s head, next the washerman
with the image, and last the small wooden cart.

When the procession arrives at the extreme limit of the village lands, they go on, for about a furlong, into the lands of
the neigh bouring village.

There the Asadis first chant the praises of the goddess, then some turmeric is distributed to all the people, and finally
the image is divested of all its ornaments and solemnly placed upon the ground and left there.

The light on the head of the buffalo is extinguished, and the head itself carried off by the Madiga, who takes it for a
feast to his own house.

The object of transporting the goddess to the lands of the next village is to transfer to that village the wrath of the
deity, a precaution which does not show much faith in the temper of the goddess, nor much charity towards their neighbours !

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INDIA LEGENDS FLOKLORE ART AND CULTURE: THANKSGIVING VOTIVE OFFERINGS in ETHNOGRAPHIC NOTES IN SOUTHERN INDIA EDGAR THURSTON MADRAS 1906

 

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ETHNOGRAPHIC NOTES IN SOUTHERN INDIA

BY

EDGAR THURSTON

MADRAS

1906

 

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As a thanksgiving for recovery from illness, in Southern India the offerings could
take the form of silver or gold representations of the part of the body affected,
which are deposited in a vessel kept for the purpose at the temple.

Such ex votos were kept for sale in the vicinity of the temple.

Of silver ex votos collected from temples in the Tamil country, the Madras museum
possesses an extensive collection, in which are included the face, hands,
feet, buttocks, tongue, larynx, navel, nose, ears, eyes, mammae, genitalia, etc. ;
snakes offered to propitiate the anger of serpents ; snakes coiled in coitu ; sandals,
umbrellas, and cocoanuts strung on a pole.

When a person has been ill all over, a silver human figure, or thin silver wire of the
same length as himself, and representing him is sometimes offered.

Silver umbrellas and flags are also offered at temples.

At Pjka in South Canara, brass or clay figures of the tiger, leopard, elephant, wild boar,
and bandicoot rat are presented at the shrine of a female bhutha named Poomanikunhoomani,
to protect the crops and cattle from the ravages of these animals.

A brass figure of Sarabha , a mythological eightlegged animal, supposed to be the vehicle of
the god Virabhadra is presented as an offering at some Siva temples in South Canara,
in cases where a person is attacked with a form of ulcer known as Siva punnu, (Siva’s sore or
ulcer).

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