ABOUT THE TRIBAL ARTS OF
IN COLLABORATION WITH
SANZA ART PREMIERS
in the past we have edited an interesting resume
It will be now important to edit more informations
the folklore of this
The base of this work it will be an old text
FOLKLORE OF THE SANTAL PARGANAS
CECIL HENRY BOMPAS
FOR THE SANTAL GLOSSARY AND RESUMED CHAPTERS OF THE TEXT
SEE MORE ON
Photos from the book :Sketches from Santalistan
by M.A. Pederson Minneapolis 1913
The Santals are a Munda tribe branch of that
aboriginal groups which probably entered in India from
the North East. At the begin of the last century they have inhabited the
Eastern outskirts of the Chutia Nagpore plateau.
Originally hunters and dwellers in the jungle they become
agriculturists. Other representatives of the race are the Mundas and Hos.
According the Author, their orginal social organization was very complete ; each village had its headman or MANJHI, with his assistant the PARANIK;
the JOGMANGHI was is charged with the supervision of the
morals of the young men and women ; the NAEKE was
the village priest, the GODET was the village constable.
Over a group of villages was the PARGANA or tribal chief.
The Santals were divided into exogamous septs— originally
twelve in number, and their social observances were
Their religion was animistic, spirits BONGAS were considereted everywhere
around them : the spirits of their ANCESTORS, the
spirit of the HOUSE, the spirit dwelling in the patch of
primeval forest preserved in each village. Every hill
tree and rock may had its spirit. These spirits were
propitiated by elaborate ceremonies and sacrifices which
generally terminate in dances, and the drinking of rice beer.
The Santal Parganas was a district 4800 sq. miles in
I area, lying about 150 miles north of Calcutta, and was
formed into a separate administration after the Santals
had risen in rebellion in 1856.
The stories and legends of the book were translated and
collected by the Rev, O. Bodding, D.D. of
the Scandinavian Mission to the Santals.
To be sure that neither language nor ideas should in
any way be influenced by contact with a European mind
he arranged for most of them to be writtea out in Santali,
principally by a Christian convert named Sagram Murmu,
in the first years of the 1900’s living at Mohulpahari in the Santal Parganas.
The Henry Bompas translation is very
literal, and the stories have an interest as showing the way in which the Santal
people look at things. The Santals were great story tellers;
the old folk of the village gathered the young people round
them in the evening and told them stories, and the men
when watching the crops on the threshing floor will often
sit up all night telling stories.
There was however, no doubt in the Author that also at the his time
the knowledge of these stories was tending to die out.
Bompas classified the stories in this way:
stories of a general character; stories relating to
animals; stories which were scarcely folklore
but linked with anecdotes relating to Santal life ; stories
relating to the dealings of bojigas and men.
Then he reported some legends and traditions, and few notes relating
to tribal customs.
It will be interesting to edit a resume of some of these stories and legends
About the Santal Tribal Arts
About the Santal Banam see more on:
About the Santal panels see more on:
About the Santal flutes see more on:
About the Santal painted scrolls from Hervé Pedriolle collection see more on:
About the Oral Tradition and Primal Elements in the Santhal Musical Texts see the interesting writing by Mr Onkar Prasad on:
About the carved Santal doors see more on: